Arbury, J., R. Bird, M. Honour, C. Innes, and M. Salmon. 1997. The Complete Book of Plant Propagation. Taunton. Newtown, CT.
Baker, H. G. and I. Baker. 1983. A brief historical review of the chemistry of floral nectar. In The Biology of Nectaries. B. Bentley and T. Elias (eds.) Columbia University Press. New York, NY.
Baird, C. and R. Bitner. 1980. Raising Leafcutting Bee-Tips for Small Producers. University of Idaho. Extension Bulletin No. 527.
Baird, C. and R. Bitner. 1991. Loose Cell Management of Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees in Idaho. University of Idaho. Extension Bulletin No. 588.
Baird, C., D. Mayer, and R. Bitner. 1991. Pollinators in Alfalfa Seed Production and Pest Management. Western Regional Extension Publication 12.
Batra, S. 1979. Osmia cornifrons and Pithitis smaragdula, two Asian bees introduced into the United States for crop pollination. Proceedings of the IVth International Symposium on Pollination. Maryland Agricultural Experimentation Station. Miscellaneous Publications 1: 307–312.
Batra, S. 1998. Hornfaced bees for apple pollination. American Bee Journal 138: 364–365.
Batra, S. 1994. Anthophora pilipes villosula Sm. (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae), a manageable Japanese bee that visits blueberries and apples during cool, rainy, spring weather. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 96: 98–119.
Batra, S. 1997. Solitary Bees for Orchard Pollination. https://www.pollinatorparadise.com/Solitary_Bees/Solitar.htm
Bekey, R. and E. C. Klostermeyer. 1981. Orchard Mason Bee. Washington State University. Extension Bulletin 922.
Bosch, J. and W. Kemp. 1999. Exceptional cherry production in an orchard pollinated with blue orchard bees. Bee World 80: 163–173.
Bosch, J., W. Kemp, and S. S. Peterson. 2000. Management of Osmia lignaria (Hymenpotera: Megachilidae) populations for almond pollination: methods to advance bee emergence. Environmental Entomology 29: 874–883.
Bosch, J. and W. Kemp. 2001. How to Manage the Blue Orchard Bee. USDA-SARE. Handbook Series Book 5.
Buchmann, S. 1983. Buzz pollination in angiosperms. In Handbook of Experimental Pollination Biology. C.E. Jones and R. J. Little (eds.), Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York, NY.
Buchmann, S. and G. Nabhan. 1996. The Forgotten Pollinators. Island Press. Washington, DC.
G. Theraulaz, and E. Conaceau. 2001. Self-Organization in Biological Systems. Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ.
Cane, J. 2005. Squash pollinators of the Americas Survey (SPAS). https://www.ars.usda.gov/Research/docs.htm?docid=12041
Capon, B. 1990. Botany for Gardeners. Timber Press. Portland, OR.
Caron, D. 1999. Honey Bee Biology and Beekeeping. WicWas Press. Cheshire, CT.
Carvell, C., D. Roy, S. Smart, R. Pywell, C. Preston, and D. Goulson. 2006. Declines in forage availability for bumblebees at a national scale. Biological Conservation 132: 481–489.
Committee on the Status of Pollinators in North America. 2007. Status of Pollinators in North America. The National Academies Press. Washington, D.C. https://www.nap.edu
Conrad, R. 2007. Natural Beekeeping: Organic Approaches to Modern Apiculture. Chelsea Green Publishing. White River Junction, VT.
Cummings, Dan. Cummings-Violich, Inc. Personal communication.
Cook, R. and L. Calvin. 2005. Greenhouse tomatoes change the dynamics of the North American fresh tomato industry. Economic Research Report No. ERR-2. https://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err2/
Danforth, B. Bee Phylogeny at Cornell University https://www.entomology.cornell.edu/BeePhylogeny/
DeGrandi-Hoffman, G. and J. Watkins. 2000. The foraging activity of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and non-Apis bees on hybrid sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) and its influence on cross-pollination and seed set. Journal of Apicultural Research 39: 37–45.
De Guzman, L., T. Rinderer, and A. Frake. 2007. Growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) populations in Russian honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 100: 187–195.
Delaplane, K. and D. Mayer. 2000. Crop Pollination by Bees. CABI Publishing. New York, NY.
Dogterom, M. 2002. Pollination with Mason Bees: a Gardener and Naturalists’ Guide to Managing Mason Bees for Fruit Production. Beediverse Publishing. Coquitlam, BC.
Eickwort G., J. Eickwort, J. Gordon, and M. Eickwort. 1996. Solitary behavior in a high-altitude population of the social sweat bee Halictus rubicundus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 38: 227–233.
Evans, E., I. Burns, and M. Spivak. 2007. Befriending Bumble Bees: a Practical Guide to Raising Local Bumble Bees. University of Minnesota Extension. Saint Paul, MN.
Evans, E. and M. Spivak. 2006. Effects of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) presence on cranberry (Ericales: Ericaceae) pollination. Journal of Economic Entomology 99: 614–620.
Eves, J. 1970. Biology of Monodontomerus obscurus Westwood, a parasite of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Torymidae; Megachidae). Melanderia 4: 1–18.
Eves, J., D. Mayer, and C. Johansen. 1980. Parasites, predators and nest destroyers of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata. Washington State University. Extension Publication 32.
Foster. K., T. Wenseleers, and F. Ratnieks. 2005. Kin selection is the key to altruism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21: 57–60.
Frazier, M. 2000. Pollination Contracts. Publication 5.4. Mid-Atlantic Apicultural Research and Extension Consortium. Pennsylvania State University. University Park, PA.
Free, J. 1993. Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crops. Academic Press. London, UK.
Furgala B., M. Spivak, and G. Reuter. 2000. Beekeeping in Northern Climates: Short Course Manual. Minnesota Extension Service Distribution Number: PC-7553-S.
Greenleaf, S. and C. Kremen. 2006. Wild bees enhance honey bees’ pollination of hybrid sunflower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 103: 13890–13895.
Goulson, D., M. Hanley, B. Darvill, and J. Ellis. 2006. Biotope associations and the decline of bumblebees (Bombus spp.). Journal of Insect Conservation 10: 95–103.
Griffin, B. 1999. The Orchard Mason Bee: The Life History, Biology, Propagation, and Use of a North American Native Bee. Knox Cellars Publishing. Bellingham, WA.
Hallett, P. 2001. A Method for ‘Hiving’ Solitary Bees and Wasps. American Bee Journal 141: 133–136.
Hanlin, S. and S. McClurg. 2003. Blue Bottle Fly (Calliphora sp.) Rearing Procedures. NCRPIS. Ames, IA.
Harbo, J. and J. Harris. 1999. Selecting honey bees for resistance to Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 30: 183–196.
Harbo, J. and J. Harris. 2005. Suppressed mite reproduction explained by the behavior of adult bees. Journal of Apicultural Research 44: 21–23.
Harris, J., and T. Rinderer. 2004. Varroa resistance of hybrid ARS Russian honey bees. American Bee Journal 144: 797–800.
Heitkam, Pat. Heitkam’s Honey Bees, Orland, CA. Personal communication.
Heinrich, B. and M. Heinrich. 1983. Size and caste in temperature regulation by bumblebees. Physiological Zoology 56: 552–562.
Hobbs, G. 1981. Alfalfa leafcutter bees for pollinating alfalfa in western Canada. Agriculture Canada Publication 1495.
Homan, H., L. Kish, N. Waters, and R. Bitner. Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee Management in Idaho. University of Idaho. Extension Bulletin 538.
Hopkins, I. 1914. History of the Bumblebee in New Zealand: Its Introduction and Results. New Zealand Department of Agriculture lndustrial and Commercial Bullletin 46.
Ibrahim, A. and M. Spivak. 2006. The relationship between hygienic behavior and suppression of mite reproduction as honey bee (Apis mellifera) mechanisms of resistance to Varroa destructor. Apidologie 37: 31–40.
Ibrahim, A., G. Reuter, and M. Spivak. 2007. Field trial of honey bee colonies bred for mechanisms of resistance against Varroa destructor. Apidologie 38: 67–76.
Johansen, C. 1973. Leafcutting Bee Storage. Washington State University. Extension Bulletin No. 2909.
Johansen, C., J. Eves, and C. Baird. 1973. Control of Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee Enemies. Washington State University. EM 2631.
Johansen, C. and D. Meyer. 1990. Pollinator Protection: a Bee and Pesticide Handbook. Wicwas Press. Cheshire, UK.
Jones, R. and P. Munn. 1998. Habitat Management For Wild Bees and Wasps. International Bee Research Association. Cardiff, UK.
Kearns, C. and J. Thomson. 2001. The Natural History of Bumblebees: a Sourcebook for Investigations. University Press of Colorado. Boulder, CO.
Kemp, W. and J. Bosch. 2001. Bees in your backyard. American Bee Journal 141: 183–185.
Kish, L., H. Homan, and N. Waters. Chalkbrood–a Serious Disease of the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee. University of Idaho. Current Information Series 477.
Koerber, T. and J. Medler. 1958. A trap-nest survey of solitary bees and wasps in Wisconsin, with biological notes. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 47: 53–63.
Krombein, K. 1962. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XVI. Biological notes on Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker, a parasitic mite of the megachilid bee Osmia (Osmia) lignaria Say (Acarina: Chaetodatylidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 237–249.
Krombein, K. 1967. Trap-nesting Wasps and Bees: Life Histories, Nests and Associates. Smithsonian Press. Washington, DC.
Loose, J., F. Drummond, C. Stubbs, S. Woods, and S. Hoffman. 2005. Conservation and Management of Native Bees in Cranberry. University of Maine: Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station. Technical Bulletin 191.
Lovgren, S. 2005. Mayan beekeeping tradition fades. National Geographic News.
Macior, L. 1975. The pollination ecology of Delphinium tricorne (Ranunculaceae). American Journal of Botany 62: 1009–1016.
McFrederick, S. and G. LeBuhn. 2006. Are urban parks refuges for bumble bees Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)? Biological Conservation 129: 372–382.
McGregor, S. 1976. Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants. Agricultural Handbook No. 496. Agricultural Research Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Maeta, Y. 1990. Utilization of wild bees. Farming Japan 24: 13–19.
Mameko-bachi Kenkyu-jo. 2003. Homepage.
Manitoba Forage Seed Association. 2003. Pollination and leafcutting bees. https://www.forageseed.mb.ca/ Articles/pollinationLeafBees.htm
Matheson, A. 1994. Forage for Bees In An Agricultural Landscape. International Bee Research Association. Cardiff, UK.
Medler, J. 1967. Biology of Osmia in trap nests in Wisconsin (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 60: 338–344.
Medler, J. and J. Lussenhop. 1968. Leafcutter Bees of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Research Bulletin. Vol. 274.
Meyer, R. and D. McBride. 1989. Alfalfa Seed Production and Leafcutting Bee Management. North Dakota State University. Extension Bulletin No. 54.
Michener, C. 1974. The Social Behavior of the Bees: a Comparative Study. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA.
Michener, C. 2000. The Bees of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD.
Michener, C., R. McGinley, and B. Danforth. 1994. The Bee Genera of North and Central America (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, DC.
Mitchell, T. 1962. Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 152.
Morse, R. and N. Calderone. 2000. The value of honey bees as pollinators of U.S. crops in 2000. Bee Culture Magazine. A.I. Root Company. Medina, OH.
Morse, R. and K. Flottum (eds.). 1997. Honey Bee Pests, Predators and Diseases. 3rd edition. A.I. Root Company. Medina, OH.
O’Toole, C. and A. Raw. 1991. Bees of the World. Blanford Publishing. London, UK.
Ozkan, H. E. 2000. Reducing Spray Drift. Ohio State University Extension Bulletin. 816-00. Columbus, OH.
Parker, F. and D. Frohlich. 1983. Hybrid sunflower pollination by a manageable Composite specialist: the sunflower leafcutter bee (Hymenoptera: Megachildae). Environmental Entomology 2: 576–581.
Parker, F. and P. Torchio. 1980. Management of wild bees. In Beekeeping in the United States. USDA Agriculture Handbook 335.
Phillips, J. and E. Klostermeyer. 1978. Nesting behavior of Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 51: 91–108.
Poinar, G. and B. Danforth. 2006. A fossil bee from early cretaceous Burmese amber. Science 314: 614.
Proctor, M., P. Yeo, and A. Lack. 1996. The Natural History of Pollination. Timber Press. Portland, OR.
Queller, D. and J. Strassmann. 1998. Kin selection and social insects. BioScience 48: 165–175.
Rank, G. 2005. An improved leafcutting bee for increased alfalfa seed production. University of Saskatchewan. https://www.leafcuttingbees.com
Riedl, H., L. Johansen, and J. Barbour. 2006. How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides. Oregon State University. Corvallis, OR. PNW 591. https://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/pnw/pnw591.pdf
Richards, K. 1989. Alfalfa Leafcutter Bee Management in Western Canada. Agriculture Canada. Publication 1495/E.
Robinson, W., R. Nowodrodzki, and R. Morse. 1989. The value of honey bees as pollinators of U.S. crops. American Bee Journal 129: 411–423, 477–487.
Roulsten, T. and J. Cane. 2000. Pollen nutritional content and digestibility for animals. In Pollen and Pollination. A. Dafni, M. Hesse, E. Pacini (eds.) Springer. Vienna.
Rust, R. 1974. The systematics and biology of the genus Osmia, subgenera Osmia, Chalcosima and Cephalosmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Wasmann Journal of Biology 32: 1–93.
Sammataro, D. and A. Avitabile. 1998. The Beekeeper’s Handbook. 3rd edition. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY.
Sarospataki, M., J. Novak, and V. Molnar. 2005. Assessing the threatened status of bumble bee species (Hymenoptera : Apidae) in Hungary, Central Europe. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 2437– 2446.
Seeley, T. 1989. The honey bee colony as a superorganism. American Scientist 77: 546–553.
Seeley, T. 1995. The Wisdom of the Hive: the Social Physiology of Honey Bee Colonies. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA.
Seeley, T. 2007. Honey bees of the Arnot Forest: a population of feral colonies persisting with Varroa destructor in the northeastern United States. Apidologie 38: 19–29.
Seeley, T. and P. Visscher. 2004. Group decision-making in nest selection by honey bees. Apidologie 35: 101–116.
Shepherd, M., S. Buchmann, M. Vaughan, and S. Hoffman Black. 2003. Pollinator Conservation Handbook. Xerces Society. Portland, OR.
Sladen, F. 1989. The Humble-Bee: Its Life-History and How to Domesticate It. Logaston Press. UK
Spivak, M. 1996. Honey bee hygienic behavior and defense against Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 27: 245–260.
Spivak, M. and D. Downey. 1998. Field assays for hygienic behavior in honey bees (Apidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Economic Entomology 91: 64–70.
Spivak, M. and G. Reuter. 1993. Successful Queen Rearing Short Course Manual. Department of Entomology and Minnesota Extension Service Distribution # MI6346. (educational packet Dist. # EP6347)
Spivak, M. and G. Reuter. 1998. Performance of hygienic honey bee colonies in a commercial apiary. Apidologie 29: 291–302.
Spivak, M. and G. Reuter. 2000. Honey bee diseases and pests. Minnesota Extension Service Distribution Number BU-7554-S.
Spivak, M. and G. Reuter. 2001. Resistance to American foulbrood diseases by honey bee colonies Apis mellifera bred for hygienic behavior. Apidologie 32: 555–565.
Spivak, M. and G. Reuter. 2001. Varroa destructor infestation in untreated honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies selected for hygienic behavior. Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 326–331.
Spivak, M. and G. Reuter. 2005. A Sustainable Approach to Controlling Honey Bee Diseases and Varroa Mites. SARE Agricultural Innovations-03AGI2005 Fact Sheet. https://www.sare.org/resources/a-sustainable-approach-to-controlling-honey-bee-diseases-and-varroa-mites/
Spivak, M. and G. Reuter. 2007. Web course “Healthy Bees” https://www.extension.uvm.edu/elms/
Stanghellini, M., J. Tambrose, and J. Schultheis. 2002. Diurnal activity, floral visitation and pollen deposition by honey bees and bumble bees on field-grown cucumber and watermelon. Journal of Apicultural Research 41: 27–34.
Stephen, W. and J. Undurraga. 1978. Chalkbrood Disease in the Leafcutting Bee. Oregon State University. Bulletin 630.
Stubbs, C., F. Drummond, and D. Yarborough. 2002. How to Manage Alfalfa Leaf Cutting Bees for Wild Blueberry Pollination. University of Maine. Extension Fact Sheet No. 300.
Tew, J. E. 1997. Protecting Honey Bees from Pesticides. Ohio State University. Extension Factsheet HYG2161-97.
Torchio, P. 1972. Sapyga pumila Cresson, a parasite of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Sapygidae, Megachilidae) II. Methods for control. Melanderia 10: 23–30.
Torchio, P. 1976. Use of Osmia lignaria Say as a pollinator in an apple and prune orchard. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 49: 475–482.
Torchio, P. 1979. An eight-year field study involving control of Sapyga pumila Cresson (Hymenoptera: Sapygidae), a wasp parasite of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile pacifica Panzer. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 52: 412–419.
Torchio, P. 1985. Field experiments with the pollinator species Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson, in apple orchards. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 58: 448–464.
Torchio, P. 1987. Use of non-honeybee species as pollinators of crops. Entomological Society of Ontario 119: 111–124.
Torchio, P. 1989. In-nest biologies and development of immature stages of three Osmia species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 82: 599–615.
Torchio, P. 1989. Biology, immature development, and adaptive behavior of Stelis montana, a cleptoparasite of Osmia. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 82: 616–632.
Torchio, P. 1990. Osmia ribifloris, a native bee species developed as a commercially managed pollinator of highbush blueberry (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 63: 427–436.
Torchio, P. 1991. Use of Osmia lignaria propinqua as a mobile pollinator of orchard crops. Environmental Entomology 20: 590–596.
Torchio, P. 1991. Bees as crop pollinators and the role of solitary species in changing environments. Acta Horticulturae 288: 49–61.
Torchio, P. 1992. Effects of spore dosage and temperature on pathogenic expressions of chalkbrood syndrome caused by Ascophaera torchioi within larvae of Osmia lignaria propinqua. Environmental Entomology 21: 1086–1091.
Torchio, P. and J. Bosch. 1992. Biology of Tricrania stansburyi, a meloid beetle cleptoparasite of the bee Osmia lignaria propinqua (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 85: 713–721.
Traynor, J. 1993. Almond Pollination Handbook For Almond Growers And Beekeepers. Kovak Books. Bakersfield, CA.
Vaughan, M. and S. H. Black. 2006. Agroforestry: Sustaining Native Bee Habitat for Crop Pollination. Agroforestry Note 32. USDA, NRCS and FS. USDA National Agroforestry Center. https://plants.usda.gov/pollinators/Agroforestry_Sustaining_Native_Bee_Habitat_for_Crop_Pollination.pdf
Vaughan, M. and S. H. Black. 2006. Agroforestry: Improving Forage for Native Bee Crop Pollinators. Agroforestry Note 33. USDA, NRCS and FS. USDA National Agroforestry Center. https://plants.usda.gov/pollinators/Improving_Forage_for_Native_Bee_Crop_Pollinators.pdf
Vaughan, M. and S. H. Black. 2006. Enhancing Nest Sites for Native Bee Crop Pollinators. Agroforestry Note 34. USDA, NRCS and FS. USDA National Agroforestry Center. https://www.fs.usda.gov/nac/assets/documents/agroforestrynotes/an34g08.pdf
Vaughan, M., M. Shepherd, C. Kremen, and S. Hoffman Black. 2007. Farming for Bees: Guidelines for Providing Native Bee Habitat on Farms. 2nd edition. The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. Portland, OR.
Walstrom, R. 1974. Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee Management for Alfalfa Pollination in South Dakota. South Dakota State University. Extension Bulletin No. 544.
Waters, N., H. Homan, and C. Baird. 1980. Recognizing Insect Enemies of Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees. University of Idaho. CIS 163.
Webster T., and K. Delaplane (eds.). 2001. Mites of the Honey Bees. Dadant and Sons, Inc. Hamilton, IL.
Williams, P. 1998. An annotated checklist of bumble bees with an analysis of patterns of description (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini). Bulletin of The Natural History Museum, Entomology 67: 79–152.
Willmer, P., A. Bataw, and J. Hughes. 1994. The superiority of bumblebees to honeybees as pollinators: insect visits to raspberry flowers. Ecological Entomology 19: 271–284.
Wilson, E. 2005. Kin selection as the key to altruism: its rise and fall. Social Research 72: 159–166.
Wilson, E. and B. Hölldobler. 2005. Eusociality: origin and consequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102: 13367–13371.
Winter, K., L. Adams, R. Thorp, D. Inouye, L. Day, J. Ascher, and S. Buchmann. 2006. Importation of Non-Native Bumble Bees into North America: Potential Consequences of Using Bombus terrestris and other Non-Native Bumble Bees for Greenhouse Crop Pollination in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. North American Pollinator Protection Campaign. White Paper.
Winston, M. 1987. The Biology of the Honey Bee. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA.
Wisconsin Agricultural Statistics Service. 2005. Cranberry Production and Pollination Survey.
Yamada, M. 1990. Control of Chaetodactylus mite, Chaetodactylus nipponicus Kurosa, an important mortality agent of hornfaced bee, Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski. Aomori Apple Experiment Station Bulletin 26: 39–77.
Zayed, A., D. Roubik, and L. Packer. 2004. Use of diploid male frequency data as an indicator of pollinator decline. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. (Supplement) 271: S9–S12.
Zayed, A. and L. Packer. 2005. Complementary sex determination substantially increases extinction proneness of haplodiploid populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 102: 10742– 10746.