APPENDIX 1: Characteristics of Crops Commonly G...

APPENDIX 1: Characteristics of Crops Commonly Grown in the Northeastern United States

APPENDIX 1: Characteristics of Crops Commonly Grown in the Northeastern United States

Appendix 1 is divided into two tables, one for vegetables and field crops, and one for cover crops. This is because the type of data available differ slightly between these crop types.

Yield and nutrient removal data are unavailable for some minor crops. Vegetable crops are arranged alphabetically by family.

  Family Harvested Part Average Yield1 (lbs/acre) Net Removal (lb/1000 lb product, fresh wt.) Cold Tolerance Weed Competition Seedbed Required
  N P2 K2
Vegetable crops    
Beet3 Beet root, leaf 25,000 2.7 0.9 3.4 half hardy moderate fine
Spinach & chard Beet leaf 8,000 5 1 5 hardy moderate fine
Carrot, parsnip Carrot root 26,000 1.6 0.4 4 half hardy low fine
Celeriac Carrot root n/a n/a n/a n/a half hardy low fine
Celery Carrot leaf 50,000 1.7 0.3 3.8 half hardy low fine
Fennel Carrot leaf n/a n/a n/a n/a half hardy low fine
Cucumber Cucurbit fruit 20,000 3.1 1.1 5.2 tender moderate medium
Melons4 Cucurbit fruit 15,000 4.2 0.8 5.3 tender high medium
Pumpkin, winter squash Cucurbit fruit 30,000 5.4 1.2 n/a tender high coarse
Summer squash Cucurbit fruit 17,000 1.8 0.4 n/a tender high medium
Sweet corn Grass seed 11,000 5 0.7 2.5 tender high coarse
Bean, snap Legume fruit 6,000 4 2 5 tender moderate medium
Pea, in pods Legume fruit 9,000 n/a n/a n/a hardy low medium
Endive etc.5 Lettuce leaf 23,000 n/a n/a n/a half hardy low fine/medium
Lettuce Lettuce leaf 24,000 2.5 1.2 5 half hardy moderate medium7
Salsify, scorzonera Lettuce root n/a n/a n/a n/a hardy low fine
Garlic Lily bulb 16,500 n/a n/a n/a very hardy low medium
Leek Lily bulb 16,000 3.6 0.5 n/a hardy low fine
Onion6 Lily bulb 25,000 2.7 0.5 2.7 hardy low fine
Scallion Lily bulb 18,000 n/a n/a n/a half hardy low fine
Okra Mallow fruit 15,000 n/a n/a n/a tender low fine
Sweet potato Morning glory root 15,000 n/a n/a n/a tender moderate medium
Broccoli, cauliflower Mustard flower bud 10,000 2.8 0.8 4 hardy moderate medium7
Brussels sprouts Mustard bud 10,000 9.4 1.2 7.8 hardy moderate medium7
Cabbage Mustard bud 35,000 3.1 0.8 3.3 hardy moderate medium7
Mustard greens8 Mustard leaf 12,000 6.2 1.5 5.5 hardy low fine
Radish Mustard root 6,000 n/a n/a n/a half hardy low medium7
Turnip, rutabaga, daikon Mustard root 3,650 n/a n/a n/a hardy moderate fine
Eggplant Nightshade fruit 20,000 1.6 0.3 n/a tender moderate medium7
Pepper Nightshade fruit 20,000 2 0.3 2.3 tender moderate medium7
Potato Nightshade root 30,000 3.7 0.7 5 half hardy high coarse
Tomato Nightshade fruit 20,000 1.7 0.8 3 tender moderate medium7
Strawberry Rose fruit 10,000 1 0.3 2.2 very hardy moderate medium7
Field Crops
Field corn—grain Grass seed 5,600 17 1.7 2.1 tender moderate coarse
Spring barley
grain Grass seed 2,880 18 1.7 2.2 hardy moderate medium
straw Grass stem 1,210 18 1.3 15.4
Oat
grain Grass seed 3,030 16 1.4 2.1 hardy moderate medium
straw Grass stem 4,020 5 0.8 8.3
Spring wheat
grain Grass seed 2,410 25 2.1 2.9 hardy moderate medium
straw Grass stem 2,770 9 0.5 8.3
Winter wheat
grain Grass seed 2,410 25 2.1 2.9 very hardy high medium
straw Grass stem 3,030 8 0.4 7.5
Spelt—grain Grass seed 2,000 n/a n/a n/a very hardy high medium
Rye
grain Grass seed 2,500 22 1.3 2.5 very hardy high medium
straw Grass stem 1,610 12 1.4 7.8
Buckwheat Buckwheat seed 950 17 3.2 4.5 tender high medium
Soybean Legume seed 2,410 59 6 14 tender high coarse
Dry bean Legume seed 1,790 36 4 9.5 tender moderate medium
Alfalfa hay Legume leaf 5,220 25 2.4 19.1 very hardy high fine
Grass & grass—leg. hay9 Grass- legume leaf 3,790 21 3.5 18.1 very hardy high fine

1 Averages are for all producers, not just organic producers. Turnip yield is for Maryland, and garlic and sweet potato yields are U.S. averages; all other vegetable crop yields are for New York.

2 P and K removal and capture rates are for elemental P and K, not P2O5 or K2O.

3 Yield and nutrients are for roots only.

4 Includes cantaloupe and watermelon.

5 Includes endive, escarole, radicchio, Italian dandelion.

6 Yield and nutrients are for bulbs only.

7 For transplants.

8 Includes kale, collards, mustard greens, Asian greens, napa cabbage, arugula, cress

9  Nutrient removals are an average of alfalfa-smooth brome, alfalfa-orchardgrass and alfalfa-timothy. Afalfa-timothy removes more P than the others.

10 Average yield data for field crops is from Canada (119).

  Family Harvested Part Capture Cold Tolerance Weed Competitiveness Seedbed Required
  N11 P K
Cover crops
Winter grain, cc12 Grass whole plant high moderate moderate very hardy high medium
Spring grain, cc13 Grass whole plant moder- ate low low hardy moderate medium
Annual ryegrass Grass whole plant moder- ate moderate moderate very hardy moderate medium
Sorghum/ sudangrass Grass whole plant high moderate moderate tender high medium
Buckwheat Buckwheat whole plant low high high tender high medium
White clover Legume whole plant fixes 80–200 low low very hardy moderate medium
Clovers, hardy14 Legume whole plant fixes 70–150 moderate moderate very hardy moderate medium
Clovers, not hardy15 Legume whole plant fixes 70–130 moderate moderate tender moderate medium
Sweet clover Legume whole plant fixes 90–170 high high very hardy moderate medium
Hairy vetch Legume whole plant fixes 90–200 moderate moderate very hardy moderate medium
Field pea Legume whole plant fixes 90–150 low low hardy high coarse
Rape, canola Mustard whole plant high high n/a hardy moderate medium
Oilseed radish Mustard whole plant high high n/a hardy high medium
11 N fixation rates are in pounds per acre.
 12 cc, as a cover crop. Includes rye winter wheat, spelt.
 13 cc, as a cover crop. Includes barley, oat, spring wheat.
 14 Includes red clover, alsike clover, and crimson clover in the south.
 15 Includes berseem clover and crimson clover in the north.

Sources (see References)

Some vegetable nutrient composition data adapted from (69).
Other results are based upon Cornell laboratory testing of harvested portions.
Cold tolerance and weed competitiveness for vegetable crops partially from (39).
Field crop nutrient data computed from (119) and, if missing there, from (78).
Cover crop information was adapted largely from (107).

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