• Increase species in time and space with crop rotations, polycultures, agroforestry and crop-livestock systems.
  • Expand genetic diversity with variety mixtures, local germplasm and multilines (or varieties that contain several different genes for resistance to a particular pest). In each case, the crop represents a genetically diverse array that can better withstand disease and pests.
  • Conserve or introduce natural enemies and antagonists with habitat enhancement or augmentative releases.
  • Boost soil biotic activity and improve soil structure with regular applications of organic matter.
  • Enhance nutrient recycling with legumes and livestock.
  • Maintain vegetative cover with reduced tillage, cover crops or mulches.
  • Enhance landscape diversity with biological corridors, vegetationally diverse crop-field boundaries or mosaics of agroecosystems.

10 Indicators of Soil Quality

10 Indicators of Crop Health