The Toolshed- Publications and Information
These publications cover aspects of weed control from different perspectives. Ones known to be helpful for creating applied sustainable weed management systems are often annotated.
Bugg, Robert L., 'Cover crop biology: A mini-review.' Sustainable Agriculture, Part 1 in Vol. 7, Number 4, Fall 1995, pp. 15-17; Part 2 in Vol. 8, Number 1, Winter 1996, pp.16-18. Includes weed response results in a number of cover-crop experiments.
Buhler, Douglas, et al, 'Integrating Mechanical Weeding with Reduced Herbicide Use In Conservation Tillage Corn Production Systems.' Agronomy Journal, Vol. 87: 507-512 (1995).
'Interrow Cultivation to Reduce Herbicide Use in Corn following Alfalfa without Tillage.' Agronomy Journal, Vol. 86:66-72 (1994). Three-year study showing yield increases from one and sometimes two cultivations independent of weed control impact. A third cultivation did not improve yield - and in some cases lowered yield - and was never profitable. Some studies have verified this 'cultivator effect,' while others have not. This study also showed that early season cultivation effectively reduced herbicide use.
'Influence of Tillage Systems on Weed Population Dynamics and Management in Corn and Soybean in the Central USA.' Crop Science, Vol. 35:1247-1257 (1995).
Burnside, Orvin C., 'Weed Science - The Step Child.' Weed Technology, Vol. 7:515-518 (1993).
Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Vegetable Farmers and their Weed-Control Machines. Burlington VT: University of Vermont, 1996. 75-min. color video, $15. CfSA, University of Vermont, 590 Main St., Burlington VT 05405-0059. www.uvm.edu/~susagctr/. Features on-farm footage of nine farmers describing and using their tools. Includes in-row and between-row cultivators and bed flamers, commercial and home-crafted. Highly recommended.
Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC), 1220 Potter Drive, Ste. 170, West Lafayette, IN 47906-1334, (765) 494-9555, fax (765) 494-5969. www.ctic.purdue.edu. Publishes newsletters, other materials on erosion management with a focus on no-till methods. Provides a list that estimates percentage of residue left after a tillage pass by specified implements, and by fragile and non-fragile crop types.
Davidson, J. Brownlee, Agricultural Machinery. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1948 (Seventh printing). Chapter 8 covers the proliferation of cultivators popular at mid-century in the U.S. Great line drawings.
Endres, Greg, et al, 'Carrington Research Extension Center 1993 Field Tour, Weed Management: Mechanical Weed Control.' Carrington, N.D., North Dakota State University, NDSU-CREC, Box 219, Carrington ND 58421, (701) 652-2951 fax (701) 652-2055. Gives specific maturities for preemerge and postemerge treatment of 21 field crops with rotary hoe and harrow; data on rotary hoeing for small grains; tool selection criteria.
Exner, D.N., R.L. Thompson and S.N. Thompson, 'Practical Experience and On-Farm Research with Weed Management in an Iowa Ridge Tillage-Based System.' Journal of Production Agriculture, Vol. 9:439-440, 496-500 (1996).
Forcella, Frank, et al, 'Application of Weed Seedbank Ecology to Low-Input Crop Management.' Ecological Applications, Vol. 3:74-83 (1993). Study suggests that up to half of the arable fields in Minnesota have weed germination rates low enough to be controlled by mechanical means alone - at only two-thirds the cost of an all-herbicide control regime. Late planting is noted as maximizing weed control and minimizing weed/crop competition
Forcella, Frank and Orvin C. Burnside, 'Pest Management - Weeds,' in J.L. Hatfield and D.L. Karlen, editors, Sustainable Agriculture Systems. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1994, pages 157-197. Explains how different tillage systems favor or discourage weed species.
Gunsolus, Jeffrey L., 'Mechanical and Cultural Weed Control in Corn and Soybeans.' American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, Vol. 5:114-119. Builds case from 35 years of research reports for integrating delayed planting, rotary hoeing, mechanical cultivating and narrow rows as suitable substitutes for herbicide control of weeds in Midwest corn and soybeans.
Iowa State University Extension and Practical Farmers of Iowa. "Reducing Weed Pressure in Ridge-Till." www.extension.iastate.edu/publications/SA2.pdf.
Kempen, Harold M., Growers Weed Management Guide, 2nd Ed. Fresno CA: Thomson Publications, 1993. 277 pages.
Johnson, Richard R., 'Influence of No-Till on Soybean Cultural Practices.' ASTA Soybean Research Conference, 1993.
Hickman, John S., 'Conservation Tillage and Water Quality.' Great Plains Agricultural Council, August 1994.
Kocher, Michael F., et al, 'Performance Evaluation of Two Types of Implement Guidance Systems.' ASAE Paper No. 94-3574, December 1994.
Lampkins, Nicholas, Organic Farming. Ipswich, U.K.: Farming Press, 1990. Distributed in North America by Diamond Farm Enterprises. Chapter 6, 'Weed Management,' is an excellent resource on weed types, explaining how to attack at a weed's weak points by using cultural practices. It gives a good review of some European vegetable weeding tools.
Lazarus, William, Minnesota Farm Machinery Economic Cost Estimates for Late 2005, document FO-6696GO. St. Paul MN.: University of Minnesota, EDS - 405 Coffey Hall, St. Paul MN 55108-6068, fax (612) 625-6281, www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/businessmanagement/DF6696.pdf. The document lists et cost of new implements, as well as overhead, operating, repair and fuel costs.
Macey, Anne, ed., Organic Field Crop Handbook. Ottawa: Canadian Organic Growers Inc., Box 6408, Station J, Ottawa ON K2A 3Y6 CANADA, (613) 256-1848. www.cog.ca/ofch.htm. 1992, illustrated, 194 pages. $40.00 (quantity discounts). Farmer-oriented, practical details on soil and weed management, crop rotation.
Mulder, Thomas A. and Jerry D. Doll, 'Reduced Input Corn Weed Control: The Effects of Planting Date, Early Season Weed Control and Row-Crop Cultivator Selection.' Journal of Production Agriculture, Vol. 7:256-260 (1994).
Mt. Pleasant, Jane, et al, 'Cultivation Basics for Weed Control in Corn.' Ithaca NY: Cornell University, 1997. 125IB241. Order from: Cornell University Resource Center, 7 Business and Technology Park, Ithaca NY 14850, (607) 255-2080. $3.75 ($4.55 to Canada). Stapled, 10 pages, photos. Outline overview of issues in cultivation, herbicide and mixed systems; descriptions of six inter-row and in-row tools, Cornell field-trials of comparative systems.
Rice, E .L., 'Biological Control of Weeds and Plant Diseases: Advances in Applied Allelopathy.' University of Oklahoma Press, 1995. 439 pages.
Ross, Merrill A., and Carroll A. Lembi, Applied Weed Science. Minneapolis MN: Burgess Publishing Co., 1985. Good coverage of MWC tools, methods and strategies on pp. 29-61.
Snipes, Charles E., and Thomas C. Mueller, 'Cotton Yield Response to Mechanical and Chemical Weed Control Systems.' Weed Science, Vol. 40:249-254 (1992).
Stephens, L.E., 'Costs and Returns for Corn /Soybean Cropping Systems.' ASAE 1992.
Thompson, Dick and Sharon, Alternatives in Agriculture, 2001 annual research report of Thompson On-Farm Research. Boone IA (2035 190th St., 50036-7423). Plastic notch bound; 124 pages, $10 postage paid. The family that sets the standard for on-farm research updates their sharing with another year of insights on ridge-tilled corn, soybeans, oats and cover crops.
Unger, Paul W., editor, 'Managing Agricultural Residues,' Chapter 11 (pp 211-244) in Wicks, Gail A., et al, Weed Control in Conservation Tillage Systems. Ann Arbor: Lewis Publishers, 1994.
Wicks, Gail A., et al, 'Mechanical Weed Management,' pp. 51-99, Chapter 4 in Smith, Albert E., ed., Handbook of Weed Management Systems. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. Good overview of North American tillage history and related cultural practices; residue charts, tool descriptions, management analysis. Strong bibliography, citing works through 1992.
Wiese, A.F., editor. 'Weed Control in Limited-Tillage Systems,' Number 2 in Monograph Series published by the Weed Science Society of America, 309 W. Clark St. Champaign IL 61820. Focus on herbicides, effects of limited tillage.
Wilkinson, R.E., and H.E. Jacques, How to know the weeds. Dubuque IA: Wm. C. Brown Co. Publishers, 1979 3rd Ed. Out of print, but excellent. Line drawings and distribution maps support clear text that includes Latin and common names, as well as regional names. Wirebound; 235 pages. Worth seeking out through used-book channels.