Eric Mader, Pollinator Outreach Coordinator, the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation

Aside from mason bees, bumble bees, and leafcutter bees, there are a number of less commonly managed pollinators—the “alternatives to alternatives,” so to speak. For the most part, management systems for these species remain largely underdeveloped, and there is much room for adaptation, experimentation, and improvement.

In many cases practical applications for the insects described in this chapter—alkali bees, shaggy fuzzyfoot bees, and flies—are limited to very specific operations or environments. And while their use may not be practical for most growers or beekeepers, they may serve as a model for the development of new managed pollinators.