Conservation Tillage Systems in the Southeast

References

Overview

Chapter 1: Introduction to Conservation Tillage Systems

  1. Balkcom, K.S. October 2005. Personal communication. National Soils Dynamics Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Auburn, AL.
  2. Bergtold, J.S., J.A. Terra, D.W. Reeves, J.N. Shaw, K.S. Balkcom, and R.L. Raper. 2005. Profitability and risk associated with alternative mixtures of high-residue cover crops. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference. Florence, SC. June 27–29, 2005. 
  3. Bergtold, J.S., M. Anand, and J. Molnar. 2007. Joint adoption of conservation agricultural practices by row crop producers in Alabama. In Proceedings of the 29th Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference, Wright, D.L., J.J. Marois, and K. Scanlon (eds.). Quincy, FL. June 25–27, 2007. 
  4. Bieber, R. 2000. Greater profits with rotation systems. South Dakota farmer makes conservation pay. Conservation Technology Information Center Partners in Action newsletter 18: 4–5.
  5. Chee, Y.E. 2004. An ecological perspective on the valuation of ecosystem services. Biological Conservation 12: 549–565. 
  6. Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC). 2002. Tillage Type Definitions. Core4. 
  7. Derpsch, R. 2008. No-tillage and conservation agriculture: a progress report. In No-till farming systems, Special publication No. 3, Goddard, T., M. Zoebisch, Y. Gan, W. Ellis, A. Watson and S. Sombatpanit (eds.). pp. 7–39. World Association of Soil and Water Conservation: Bangkok, Thailand.
  8. Derpsch, R. 2008. Critical steps to no-till adoption. In No-till farming systems, Special publication No. 3, Goddard, T., M. Zoebisch, Y. Gan, W. Ellis, A. Watson and S. Sombatpanit (eds.). pp. 479–495. World Association of Soil and Water Conservation: Bangkok, Thailand.
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  10. Hanson, J.D., M.A. Liebig, S.D. Merrill, D.L. Tanaka, J.M. Krupinsky, and D.E. Stott. 2007. Dynamic cropping systems: increasing adaptability amid an uncertain future. Agronomy Journal 99: 939–943.
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  12. Jaenicke, E.C., D.L. Frechette, and J.A Larson. 2003. Estimating production risk and inefficiency simultaneously: an application to cotton cropping systems. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 28: 540–557.
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  14. Kornecki, T.S., A.J. Price, and R.L. Raper. 2006. Performance of different roller designs in terminating rye cover crop and reducing vibration. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 22: 633–641. 
  15. Lal, R. 1995. The role of residue management in sustainable agricultural systems. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 54: 51–78. 
  16. Larson, J.A., R.K. Roberts, E.C. Jaenicke, and D.D. Tyler. 2001. Profit-maximizing nitrogen fertilization rates for alternative tillage and winter cover systems. Journal of Cotton Science 5: 156–168.
  17. Larson, J.A., R.K. Roberts, D.D. Tyler, B.N. Duck, and S.P. Slinsky. 1998. Nitrogen-fixing winter cover crops and production risk: a case study for no-tillage corn. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 30: 163–174. 
  18. Licht, M.A., and M. Al-Kaisi. 2005. Strip-tillage effect on seedbed soil temperature and other soil physical properties. Soil and Tillage Research 80: 233–249
  19. Lu, Y.C., K.B. Watkins, J.R. Teasdale, and A.A. Abdul-Baki. 2000. Cover crops in sustainable food production. Food Reviews International 16: 121–157.
  20. Morrison Jr., J.E. 2002. Strip tillage for “no till” row crop production. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 18(3): 277–284.  
  21. Morton, T.A., J.S. Bergtold, and A.J. Price. 2006. The economics of cover crop biomass for corn and cotton. In Proceedings of the 28th Annual Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference. Bushland, TX. June 26–28, 2006.
  22. National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), USDA. 2014. 2012 Census Volume 1, Chapter 1: State Level. NASS-USDA.
  23. Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), USDA. 2001. Conservation practice standard: residue management, no till/strip till. Electronic Field Office Technical Guide 329A–1. USDA-NRCS: Alabama. 
  24. Pierce, F.J. 1985. A systems approach to conservation tillage: introduction. In A systems approach to conservation tillage, F.M. D’Itri (ed.). pp. 3–14. Lewis Publishers: Chelsea, MI.
  25. Raper, R.L., and J.S. Bergtold. 2007. In-row subsoiling: a review and suggestions for reducing cost of this conservation tillage operation. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 23: 463–471. 
  26. Raper, R.L., J.S. Bergtold, and E.B. Schwab. 2008. Effect of row proximity to in-row subsoiled zones on cotton productivity. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 24: 573–579. 
  27. Raper, R.L., and J.M. Kirby. 2006. Soil compaction: how to do it, undo it and avoid doing it. ASABE Distinguished Lecture Series 30: 1–14. 
  28. Reeder, R.C. 2002. Maximizing performance in conservation tillage systems–an overview. ASAE Annual International Meeting/CIGR XVth World Congress (Paper No. 021134). Chicago, IL. July 28–31, 2002. 
  29. Reicosky, D.C. 2008. Carbon sequestration and environmental benefits of no-till systems. In No-till farming systems, Special publication no. 3, Goddard, T., M. Zoebisch, Y. Gan, W. Ellis, A. Watson, and S. Sombatpanit (eds.). pp. 43–58. World Association of Soil and Water Conservation: Bangkok, Thailand.
  30. Snapp, S.S., S.W. Swinton, R. Labarta, D. Mutch, J.R. Black, R. Leep, J. Nyiraneza, and K. O’Neil. 2005. Evaluating cover crops for benefits, costs and performance within cropping system niches. Agronomy Journal 97(2005): 322–332. 
  31. Sullivan, P. 2003. Conservation tillage. National Center for Appropriate Technology ATTRA publication No. CT 105.
  32. Tilman, D., K.G. Cassman, P.A. Matson, R. Naylor, and S. Polasky. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418: 671–677.

Chapter 2: Conservation Tillage Systems: History, the Future and Benefits

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  2. Barnett, A.P. 1986. Fifty Years of Progress in Soil and Water Conservation Research at the Southern Piedmont Conservation Research Center, 1937–1987. Southern Piedmont Conservation Research Center: Watkinsville, GA.
  3. Basore, N.S., L.B. Best, and J.B. Wooley, Jr. 1987. Arthropod Availability to Pheasant Broods in No-tillage Fields. Wildlife Society Bulletin 11: 343–347.
  4. Bennett, H.H. 1939. The Land and the People. Scientific Monthly 48(6): 534–546.
  5. Bennett, H.H. 1959. The Hugh Bennett Lectures. Agricultural Foundation, North Carolina State College: Raleigh, NC.
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  7. Bergtold, J.S., P.A. Duffy, D. Hite, and R.L. Raper. 2012. Demographic and management factors affecting the adoption and perceived benefit of winter cover crops in the Southeast. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 44: 1–18.
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  14. Cowen, W.F. 1982. Waterfowl Production on Zero Tillage Farms. Wildlife Society Bulletin 10: 305–308.
  15. Culpepper, S.A. 2006. Glyphosate-Induced Weed Shifts. Weed Technology 20: 277–281.
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  20. Edwards, J.H., C.W. Wood, D.L. Thrulow, and M.E. Ruf. 1992. Tillage and Crop Rotation Effects on Fertility Status of a Hapludult Soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56: 1577–1582.
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  23. Endale D.M., M.L. Cabrera, J.L. Steiner, D.E. Radcliffe, W.K. Vencill, H.H. Schomberg, and L. Lohr. 2002. Impact of conservation tillage and nutrient management on soil water and yield of cotton fertilized with poultry litter or ammonium nitrate in the Georgia Piedmont. Soil and Tillage Research 66: 55–86.
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  28. Hillel, D. 1991. Out of the Earth: Civilization and the Life of the Soil. University of California Press: Berkeley, CA.
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  32. Langdale, G.W. 1994. Conservation Tillage Development in the Southeastern United States. In Proceedings of the 17th Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture, Bauer, P.J., and W.J. Bisscher (eds.). pp.6–11. Columbia, SC. June 7–9, 1994.
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  38. Nelson, P.J. 1997. To hold the land: Soil erosion, agricultural scientists, and the development of conservation tillage techniques. Agricultural History 71: 71–90.
  39. Nyakatawa, E.Z., K.C. Reddy, and J.L. Lemunyon. 2001. Predicting Soil Erosion in Conservation Tillage Cotton Productions Systems Using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Soil and Tillage Research 57: 213–224.
  40. Parvin, D.W., and S. Dabney. 2004. No-till Cotton Yield Response to a Wheat Cover Crop in Mississippi. Crop Management 3(1).
  41. Pimentel, D., C. Harvey, P. Resosudarmo, K. Sinclair, D. Kurz, M. McNair, S. Crist, L. Shpritz, L. Fitton, R. Saffouri, and R. Blair. 1995. Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science 267: 1117–1123.
  42. Radcliffe, D.E., E.W. Tollner, W.L. Hargrove, R.L. Clarke, and M.H. Golabi. 1988. Effect of Tillage Practices on Infiltration and Soil Strength of a Typic Hapludult Soil After Ten Years. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52: 798–804.
  43. Reicosky, D.C., D.K. Cassel, R.L. Blevins, W.R. Gill, and G.C. Naderman. 1977. Conservation Tillage in the Southeast. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 32: 13–19.
  44. Rhoton, F.E., M.J. Shipitalo, and D.L. Linbo. 2002. Runoff and Soil Loss from Midwestern and Southeastern U.S. Silt Loams as Affected by Tillage Practice and Soil Organic Matter Content. Soil and Tillage Research 66: 1–11.
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Chapter 3: Benefits of Increasing Soil Organic Matter

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  45. Rice, C.W., T.B. Moorman, and M. Beare. 1996. Role of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in soil quality, In Methods for assessing soil quality, Doran, J.W., and A. J. Jones (eds.). Soil Science Society of America: Madison, WI.
  46. Rynk, R., M. van de Kamp, G. Willson, M. Singley, T. Richar, J. Kolega, F. Gouin, L. Laliberty, D. Kay, D. Murphey, H. Hiotink, and W. Brinton. 1992. On-Farm Composting Handbook. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service: Ithaca, NY.
  47. Schomberg, H.H., G.W. Langdale, A.J. Franzluebbers, and M.C. Lamb. 2003. Comparison of tillage types and frequencies for cotton on Southern Piedmont soil. Agronomy Journal 95: 1281–1287.
  48. Schwab, E.B., D.W. Reeves, C.H. Burmester, and R.L. Raper. 2002. Conservation tillage systems for cotton in the Tennessee Valley. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 569–577.
  49. Shestak, C.J., and M.D. Busse. 2005. Compaction alters physical but not biological indices of soil health. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69: 236–246.
  50. Siri-Prieto, G., D.W. Reeves, and R.L. Raper. 2007. Tillage systems for a cotton-peanut rotation with winter-annual grazing: Impacts on soil carbon, nitrogen and physical properties. Soil and Tillage Research 96: 260–268.
  51. Steinberg, C., V. Edel-Hermann, C. Alabouvette, and P. Lemanceau. 2007. Soil suppressiveness to plant diseases, In Modern soil microbiology, 2nd ed, van Elsas, J.D., et al. (eds.). CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.
  52. Stevenson, F.J. 1994. Humic chemistry: Genesis, composition, reactions, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons: New York, NY.
  53. Tisdale, S.L., W.L. Nelson, J.D. Beaton, and J.H. Havlin. 1993. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers, 5th ed. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  54. Truman, C.C., J.N. Shaw, and D.W. Reeves. 2005. Tillage effects on rainfall partitioning and sediment yield from an ultisol in central Alabama. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 60(2): 89–98.
  55. West, T.O., and G. Marland. 2002. Net carbon flux from agricultural ecosystems: Methodology for full carbon cycle analyses. Environmental Pollution 116: 439–444.

Chapter 4 The Calendar: Management Tasks by Season

  1. Hancock, D.W., R.C. Lacy, and R.L. Stewart Jr. 2014. Forage Systems for Stocker Cattle. Document B 1392. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension.

Chapter 5: Cover Crop Management

  1. Balkcom, K.S., F.J. Arriaga, and E. van Santen. 2013. Conservation systems to enhance soil carbon sequestration in the Southeast U.S. Coastal Plain. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77: 1774–1783.
  2. Balkcom, K.S., L.M. Duzy, T.S. Kornecki, and A.J. Price. 2015. Timing of cover crop termination: Management considerations for the Southeast. Crop, Forage and Turfgrass Management 1: 1–7.
  3. Balkcom, K.S., L.M. Duzy, T.S. Kornecki, and A.J. Price. 2016. A simple guide for conservation systems in the Southeast. USDA-ARS.  
  4. Bates, G., C. Harper, and F. Allen. 2008. Forage and Field Crop Seeding Guide For Tennessee. University of Tennessee Extension. 
  5. Brown, S., J. Todd, A. Culbreath, J. Baldwin, J. Beasley, B. Kemerait, and H. Pappu. 2001. Tomato spotted wilt of peanut: Identifying and avoiding high-risk situations. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service bulletin No. 1165. 
  6. Causarano, H. J., A.J. Franzluebbers, D.W. Reeves, J.N. Shaw, and M.L. Norfleet. 2005. Soil organic carbon sequestration in cotton production systems. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference for Sustainable Agriculture. pp. 192–200. Florence, SC. June 27–29, 2005.
  7. Hubbs, M.D., M.L. Norfleet, and D.T. Lightle. 2002. Interpreting the soil conditioning index. In Proceedings of the 25th Annual Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture, van Santen, E. (ed.). pp. 192–196. Auburn, AL. June 24–26, 2002.
  8. Lee, R. D. Planting Guide to Grasses and Legumes for Forage and Wildlife in Georgia. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service. 
  9. Munawar, A., R.L. Blevins, W.W. Frye, and M.R. Saul. 1990. Tillage and cover crop management for soil water conservation. Agronomy Journal 82: 773–777.
  10. Reeves, D.W. 1994. Cover crop and rotations. In Crops Residue Management, Hatfield, J.L., and B. A. Stewart (eds.). pp. 125–172. Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, FL.
  11. Tillman, G., H. Schomberg, S. Phatak, B. Mullinix, S. Lachnicht, P. Timper, and D. Olson. 2004. Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 1217–1232.
  12. Unger, P.W., and M.F. Vigil. 1998. Cover crop effects on soil water relationships. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 53: 200–207.
  13. Wagger, M.G. 1989. Cover crop management and nitrogen rate in relation to growth and yield of no-till corn. Agronomy Journal 81: 533–538.
  14. Wagger, M.G., and D.B. Mengel. 1988. The role of nonleguminous cover crops in the efficient use of water and nitrogen. In Cropping Strategies for Efficient Use of Water and Nitrogen, Hargrove, W.L. (ed.). pp. 115–127. American Society of Agronomy special publication No. 51. Madison, WI.

Chapter 6: In-Row Subsoiling to Disrupt Soil Compaction

  1. ASABE Standards. 2009a. EP542: Procedures for obtaining and reporting data with the soil cone penetrometer. ASAE: St. Joseph, MI.
  2. ASABE Standards. 2009b. S313.3: Soil cone penetrometer. ASAE: St. Joseph, MI.
  3. ASABE Standards. 2009c. EP291.2: Terminology and definitions for soil tillage and soil-tool relationships. ASAE: St. Joseph, MI.
  4. Baumhardt, R.L., and O.R. Jones. 2002. Residue management and paratillage effects on some soil properties and rain infiltration. Soil and Tillage Research 65(1–2): 19–27.
  5. Baumhardt, R.L., O. R. Jones, and R. C. Schwartz. 2008. Long-term effects of profile-modifying deep plowing on soil properties and crop yield. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72(3): 677–682.
  6. Blackwell, P.S., N.S. Jayawardane, J. Blackwell, R. White, and R. Horn. 1989. Evaluation of soil recompaction by transverse wheeling of tillage slots. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53(1): 11–15.
  7. Box, J., and G.W. Langdale. 1984. The effects of in-row subsoil tillage and soil water on corn yields in the Southeastern coastal plain of the United States. Soil and Tillage Research 4(1): 67–78.
  8. Busscher, W.J., and P.J. Bauer. 2003. Soil strength, cotton root growth, and lint yield in a southeastern USA coastal loam sand. Soil and Tillage Research 74(2): 151–159.
  9. Busscher, W.J., D.L. Karlen, R.E. Sojka, and K.P. Burnham. 1988. Soil and plant response to three subsoiling implements. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52(3): 804–809.
  10. Busscher, W.J., R.E. Sojka, and C.W. Doty. 1986. Residual effects of tillage on Coastal Plain soil strength. Soil Science 141(2): 144–148.
  11. Camp, C.R., and E.J. Sadler. 2002. Irrigation, deep tillage, and nitrogen management for a corn-soybean rotation. Transactions of the ASAE 45(3): 601–608.
  12. Campbell, R.B., D.C. Reicosky, and C.W. Doty. 1974. Physical properties and tillage of Paleudults in the southeastern Coastal Plains. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 29(5): 220–224.
  13. Clark, R.L., D.E. Radcliffe, G.W. Langdale, and R.R. Bruce. 1993. Soil strength and water infiltration as affected by Paratillage frequency. Transactions of the ASAE 36(5): 1301–1305.
  14. Gill, W.R., and G.E. Vanden Berg. 1966. Design of tillage tools. In Soil dynamics in tillage and traction, Gill, W.R., and G.E. Vanden Berg (eds.). pp. 211–297. USDA: Auburn, AL.
  15. National Academy of Engineering. 2016. Agricultural Mechanization Timeline. 
  16. Mississippi State University Department of Agricultural Economics. 2006. Cotton 2006 Planning Budgets. 2005–01. Mississippi State University. 
  17. Mullins, G.L., C.H. Burmester, and D.W. Reeves. 1997. Cotton response to in-row subsoiling and potassium fertilizer placement in Alabama. Soil and Tillage Research 40(3–4): 145–154.
  18. Nichols, M.L., and C.A. Reaves. 1958. Soil reaction: to subsoiling equipment. Journal of Agricultural Engineering 39(6): 340–343.
  19. Raper, R.L., and J.S. Bergtold. 2007. In-row subsoiling: a review and suggestions for reducing cost of this conservation tillage operation. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 23(4): 463–471.
  20. Raper, R.L., D.W. Reeves, and E. Burt. 1998. Using in-row subsoiling to minimize soil compaction caused by traffic. Journal of Cotton Science 2(3): 130–135.
  21. Raper, R.L., D.W. Reeves, E. Burt, and H.A. Torbert. 1994. Conservation tillage and traffic effects on soil condition. Transactions of the ASAE 37(3):763–768.
  22. Raper, R.L., D.W. Reeves, J.N. Shaw, E. van Santen, and P.L. Mask. 2005a. Using site-specific subsoiling to minimize draft and optimize corn yields. Transactions of the ASAE 48(6): 2047–2052.
  23. Raper, R.L., E.B. Schwab, K.S. Balkcom, C.H. Burmester, and D.W. Reeves. 2005b. Effect of annual, biennial, and triennial in-row subsoiling on soil compaction and cotton yield in Southeastern U.S. silt loam soils. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 21(3): 337–343.
  24. Raper, R.L., and A.K. Sharma. 2004. Soil moisture effects on energy requirements and soil disruption of subsoiling a coastal plains soil. Transactions of the ASAE 47(6):1899–1905.
  25. Reicosky, D.C., D.K. Cassel, R.L. Blevins, W.R. Gill, and G.C. Naderman. 1977. Conservation tillage in the Southeast. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 32(1): 13–19.
  26. Schwab, E.B., D.W. Reeves, C.H. Burmester, and R.L. Raper. 2002. Conservation tillage systems for cotton in the Tennessee Valley. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66(2): 569–577.
  27. Self-Davis, M.L., M.S. Miller, R.L. Raper, and D.W. Reeves. 1996. Pasture soil and vegetation response to renovation tillage. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual Southern Conservation Tillage Conference on Sustainable Agriculture. pp. 131–136. Jackson, TN. July 23–25, 1996.
  28. Smith, L.A. 1995. Cotton response to deep tillage with controlled traffic on clay. Transactions of the ASAE 38(1):45–50.
  29. Taylor, H. M., and H. R. Gardner. 1963. Penetration of cotton seedling taproots as influenced by bulk density, moisture content, and strength of soil. Soil Science 96(3): 153–156.
  30. Threadgill, E.D. 1982. Residual tillage effects as determined by cone index. Transactions of the ASAE: 859–867.
  31. Touchton, J.T., D.H. Rickerl, C.H. Burmester, and D.W. Reeves. 1986. Starter fertilizer combinations and placement for conventional and no-tillage cotton. Journal of Fertilizer Issues 3: 91–98.
  32. Truman, C., W. Reeves, J. Shaw, A. Motta, C. Burmester, R.L. Raper, and E. Schwab. 2003. Tillage impacts on soil property, runoff, and soil loss variations from a Rhodic Paleudult under simulated rainfall. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 58(5): 258–267.
  33. Tupper, G.R. and H.C. Pringle, III. 1986. New equipment for deep banking dry lime into acid subsoils. In Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conference. National Cotton Council of America. pp. 456–457. Memphis, TN.
  34. Wesley, R.A., and L.A. Smith. 1991. Response of soybean to deep tillage with controlled traffic on clay soil. Transactions of the ASAE 34(1): 113–119.

Chapter 7: Cash Crop Selection and Rotation

  1. Alley, M.M., D.E. Brann, E.L. Stromberg, E.S. Hagood, A. Herbert, E.C. Jones, and W.K. Griffith. 1993. Intensive soft red winter wheat production: A management guide. Publication No. 424–803. Virginia Tech and Virginia Cooperative Extension: Blacksburg, VA.
  2. Ashford, D.L., and D.W. Reeves. 2003. Use of a mechanical roller-crimper as an alternative kill method for cover crops. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 18: 37–45.
  3. Barden, J.A., R.G. Halfacre, and D.J. Parrish. 1987. Plant Science. McGraw-Hill: New York, NY. 
  4. Boone, L.V. 1991. Producing farm crops. Interstate Publishing: Danville, IL. 
  5. Brown, S.M., T. Whitwell, J.T. Touchton, and C.H. Burmester. 1985. Conservation tillage systems for cotton production. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49: 1256–1260.
  6. Bullock, D.G. 1992. Crop rotation. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11: 309–326.
  7. Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC). 2009. National crop residue management survey. CTIC: West Lafayette, IN. 
  8. Daniel, J.B., A.O. Abaye, M.M. Alley, C.W. Adcock, and J.C. Maitland. 1999a. Winter annual cover crops in a Virginia no-till cotton production system: I. Biomass production, ground cover, and nitrogen assimilation. Journal of Cotton Science 3: 74–83.
  9. Daniel, J.B., A.O. Abaye, M.M. Alley, C.W. Adcock, and J.C. Maitland. 1999b. Winter annual cover crops in a Virginia no-till cotton production system: II. Cover crop and tillage effects on soil moisture, cotton yield, and cotton quality. Journal of Cotton Science 3: 84–91.
  10. Farahani, H., and W.B. Smith. 2011. Irrigation. Clemson University and South Carolina Cooperative Extension: Clemson, SC.
  11. Heap, I. 2014. Herbicide resistant weeds by species and site of action. International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds: Corvallis, OR.
  12. Holmgren, G.G.S., M.W. Meyer, R.L. Chaney, and R.B. Daniels. 1993. Cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, and nickel in agricultural soils in the United States of America. Journal of Environmental Quality 22: 335–348.
  13. Jordan, D.L., R.L. Bradenburg, A.B. Brown, S.G. Bullen, G.T. Roberson, B. Shew, and J.F. Spears. 2011. 2012 Peanut information. North Carolina Cooperative Extension: Raleigh, NC. 
  14. Mitchell, C.C., D.P. Delaney, and K.S. Balkcom. 2008. A historical summary of Alabama’s Old Rotation (circa 1896): The world’s oldest, continuous cotton experiment. Agronomy Journal 100(5): 1493–1498.
  15. Moschler, W.W., G.M. Shear, D.L. Hallock, R.D. Sears, and G.D. Jones. 1967. Winter cover crops for sod-planted corn: Their selection and management. Agronomy Journal  59: 547–551.
  16. Raper, R.L., D.W. Reeves, C.H. Burmester, and E.B. Schwab. 2000. Tillage depth, tillage timing, and cover crop effects on cotton yield, soil strength, and energy requirements. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 16(4): 379–385.
  17. Reiter, M.S., U.T. Deitch, W.H. Frame, D.L. Holshouser, and W.E. Thomason. 2015. The nutrient value of straw. Publication No. CSES–126NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension: Blacksburg, VA. 
  18. Reiter, M.S., D.W. Reeves, and C.H. Burmester. 2008a. Cotton nitrogen management in a high-residue conservation system: Nitrogen source, rate, application method, and application timing. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72: 1330–1336. 
  19. Reiter, M.S., D.W. Reeves, C.H. Burmester, and H.A. Torbert. 2008b. Cotton nitrogen management in a high-residue conservation system: Cover crop fertilization. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72: 1321–1329.
  20. Stromberg, E. 1986. Gray leaf spot disease of corn. Publication No. 450–612. Virginia Cooperative Extension: Blacksburg, VA.
  21. USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). 2014a. 2012 Census of Agriculture. USDA-NASS: Washington, D.C.
  22. USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Quickstats, 2017. USDA-NASS: Washington, D.C.
  23. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). 2011. Soil textural triangle. USDA-NRCS: Washington, D.C. 
  24. Warren, G.F. 1918. Farm management. Macmillan Company: New York, NY. 
  25. White, K.D. 1970. Fallowing, crop rotation, and crop yields in Roman times. Agricultural History 44(3): 281–290

Chapter 8: Sod, Grazing and Row-Crop Rotation: Enhancing Conservation Tillage

  1. Allmaras, R.R., D.R. Linden, and E. Clapp. 2004. Corn-residue transformations into root and soil carbon as related to nitrogen, tillage, and stover management. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68: 1366–1375.
  2. Balesdent, J., and M. Balabane. 1996. Major contribution of roots to soil carbon storage inferred from maize cultivated soils. Soil Biology Biochemistry. 28: 1261–1263.
  3. Ball, D.M., C.S. Hoveland, and G.D. Lacefield. 1996. Southern forages. Published by the Potash and Phosphate Institute and the Foundation for Agronomic Research. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 95-71361.
  4. Baumhardt, R.L., R.C. Schwartz, L.W. Greene, and J.C. MacDonald. 2009. Cattle gain and crop yield for a dryland wheat-sorghum-fallow rotation. Agronomy Journal 101: 150–158.
  5. Boote, K. 2009. Personal communication.
  6. Bransby, D., B.E. Gamble, B. Gregory, M. Pegues, and R. Rawls. 1999. Feedlot gains on forages: Alabama’s stocker cattle can make significant gains on rye grass pastures. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station. Highlights of Agricultural Research 46(2).
  7. Brenneman, T.B., D.R. Sumner, R.E. Baird, G.W. Burton, and N.A. Minton. 1995. Suppression of foliar and soil borne peanut diseases in bahiagrass rotations. Phytopathology 85: 948–952.
  8. Brenneman, T.B., T. Timper, N.A. Minton, and A.W. Johnson. 2003. Comparison of bahiagrass, corn, and cotton as rotational crops for peanut. In Proceedings of the Sod-based Cropping Systems Conference. pp. 59–65. Quincy, FL. 
  9. Brouwer, J., and J.M. Powell. 1995. Soil aspects of nutrient cycling in a manure application experiment in Niger. In Livestock and sustainable nutrient cycles in mixed-farming systems of Sub-Sahara Africa. Volume II: Technical Papers. Proceedings of an International Conference, Powell, J.M., et al. (eds.). pp. 211–226. International Livestock Centre for Africa: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. November 22–26, 1993.
  10. Brouwer, J., and J.M. Powell. 1997. Micro-topography, water balance, millet yield and nutrient leaching in a manuring experiment on sandy soil in south-west Niger. In Soil Fertility Management in West African Land Use Systems, Niamey, Niger, Renard, G., A. Neef, K. Becker and M. von Oppen (eds.). pp. 349-359. Margraf Verlag: Weikersheim, Germany.
  11. Campbell, R.B., D.C. Reicosky, and C.W. Doty. 1974. Physical properties and tillage of Paleudults in the Southeastern Coastal Plains. Journal of Soil Water Conservation 29: 220–224.
  12. Cattlemen’s Beef Association. 2004. Environment. Cattle and Beef Handbook.
  13. Causarano, H.J., A.J. Franzluebbers, D.W. Reeves, J.N. Shaw, and M.L. Norfleet. 2005. Potential for soil carbon sequestration in cotton production systems of the southeastern USA. USDA-NRCS and Auburn University. 
  14. Clark, E.A. 2004. Benefits of re-integrating livestock and forages in crop production systems. Journal of Crop Improvement 12: 405–436.
  15. Dickson, D.W., and T.F. Hewlett. 1989. Effects of bahiagrass, and nematicides on Meloidogyne arenaria on peanut. Supplement to the Journal of Nematology 21(4S): 671–676.
  16. Elkins, C.B., R.L. Haaland, and C.S. Hoveland. 1977. Grass roots as a tool for penetrating soil hardpans and increasing crop yields. In Proceedings of the 34th Southern Pasture and Forage Crop Improvement Conference. pp. 21–26. Auburn, AL.
  17. Faircloth, J. 2009. Personal communication
  18. Field, T.G., and R.E. Taylor. 2002. Beef production management decisions. Pearson Education. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  19. Gale, W.J., C.A. Cambardella, and T.B. Bailey. 2000. Root-derived carbon and the formation and stabilization of aggregates. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64: 201–207.
  20. Gates, R.N. 2003. Integration of perennial forages and grazing in sod-based crop rotations. In Proceedings of the Sod-based Cropping Systems Conference. pp. 7–13. Quincy, FL.
  21. Hagan, A.K., L.H. Campbell, J.R. Weeks, M.E. Rivas-Davila, and B. Gamble. 2003. Impact of bahiagrass, cotton, and corn cropping frequency on the severity of diseases of peanut. In Proceedings of the Sod-based Cropping Systems Conference. pp. 46–58. Quincy, FL. 
  22. Kashirad, A.J., G.A. Fiskell, V.W. Carlisle, and C.E. Hutton. 1967. Tillage pan characterization of selected Coastal Plain soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 31: 534–541.
  23. Katsvairo, T.W., and W.J. Cox. 2000. Economics of cropping systems featuring different rotations, tillage, and management. Agronomy Journal 92: 485–493
  24. Katsvairo, T.W., D.L. Wright, J.J. Marois, and P.J. Wiatrak. 2004. Peanut and cotton yield in sod-based cropping systems. In Southern Branch of the American Society of Agronomy Abstracts. Abstract No. S-katsvairo543048. Biloxi, MS. June 27–29, 2004.
  25. Katsvairo, T.W., D.L. Wright, J.J. Marois, D.L. Hartzog, J.R. Rich, and P.J. Wiatrak. 2006. Sod-livestock integration into the peanut-cotton rotation. Agronomy Journal 98: 1156–1171.
  26. Krall, J.M., and G.E. Schuman. 1996. Integrated dryland crop and livestock production systems on the Great Plains: Extent and outlook. Journal of Production Agriculture 9: 187–191.
  27. Lavelle, P. 1988. Earthworms and the soil system. Biology and Fertility of Soils 6: 237–251
  28. Linden, D.R., P.F. Hendrix, D.C. Coleman, and P.C.J. Van Vliet. 1994. Faunal indicators of soil quality. In Defining soil quality for a sustainable environment, Doran, J., et al. (eds.). pp. 91–106. Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) special publication 35. SSSA: Madison, WI.
  29. Logsdon, S.L., and D.R. Linden. 1992. Interaction of earthworms with soil physical conditions and plant growth. Soil Science 154: 330–337.
  30. Long, F.L., and C.B. Elkins. 1983. The influence of roots on nutrient leaching and uptake. In Nutrient cycling in agricultural ecosystems, Lowrance, R.T., L. Asmussen, and R. Leonard (eds.). pp. 335–352. University of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station special publication No. 23.
  31. Milchumas, D.G., W.K. Lauenroth, J.S. Singh, and C.V. Cole. 1985. Root turnover and production by 14C dilution: Implications of carbon partitioning in plants. Plant and Soil 88: 353–365.
  32. Norden, A.J., V.G. Perry, F.G. Martin, and J. NeSmith. 1980. Effect of age of bahiagrass sod on succeeding peanut crops. Peanut Science 4: 71–74.
  33. Peanut Advisory Group for Georgia, Florida and Alabama. 2009. Personal communication.
  34. Puget, P., and L.E. Drinkwater. 2001. Short-term dynamics of root- and shoot-derived carbon from a leguminous green manure. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65: 771–779.
  35. Reeves, D.W. 1997. The role of soil organic matter in maintaining soil quality in continuous cropping systems. Soil and Tillage Research 43: 131–167.
  36. Sholar, R.E., R.W. Mozingo, and J.P. Beasley, Jr. 1995. Peanut cultural practices. In Advances in peanut science, Pattee, H.E., and T.H. Stalker (eds.). pp. 354–382. American Peanut Research and Education Society: Stillwater, OK.
  37. Siri-Prieto, G., D.W. Reeves, R.L. Raper, D. Bransby, and B.E Gamble. 2003. Integrating winter annual grazing in a cotton-peanut rotation: Forage and tillage system selection. In Proceedings of the Sod-based Cropping Systems Conference. pp. 104–115. Quincy, FL. February 20–21, 2003.
  38. Sod Report. 2005. Sod rotation. North Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida: Quincy, FL. 
  39. Taboada, M.A., and R.S. Lavado. 1993. Influence of cattle trampling on soil porosity under alternate dry and ponded conditions. Soil Use and Management 9: 139–143.
  40. Tanaka, D.L., J.M. Krupinsky, M.A. Liebig, S.D. Merrill, R.E. Ries, J.R. Hendrickson, H.A. Johnson, and J.D. Hanson. 2002. Dynamic cropping systems: An adaptable approach to crop production in the Great Plains. Agronomy Journal 94: 957–961.
  41. Taylor, C.R., and R. Rodriguez-Kabana. 1999. Optimal rotation of peanuts and cotton to manage soil-borne organisms. Agricultural Systems 61: 57–68.
  42. Tsigbey, F.K., J.J. Marois, and D.L. Wright. 2007. Influence of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluegge) rotation in the suppression of tomato spotted wilt of peanut in Quicy, FL. In Proceedings of the 29th Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference, Wright, D.L., J.J. Marois, and K. Scanlon (eds.). Quincy, FL. 
  43. Wedin, D.A., and D. Tilman. 1990. Species effects on nitrogen cycling: A test with perennial grasses. Oecologia 84: 433–441.
  44. White, A.W. Jr., G.N. Sparrow, and R.L. Carter. 1962. Peanuts and corn in sod-based rotations. Georgia Agricultural Research 4(2): 5–6.
  45. Wilhelm, W.W., J.M.F. Johnson, J.L. Hatfield, W.B. Voorhees, and D.R. Linden. 2004. Crop and soil productivity response to corn residue removal. Agronomy Journal 96: 1–17.
  46. Wright, D.L., A. Blount, and E.B. Whitty. 2008. Agronomic Crop Species and Variety Selection (SS-AGR-156). University of Florida/IFAS Extension: Gainesville, FL.
  47. Wright, D.L., T.W. Katsvairo, J.J. Marois, and P.J. Wiatrak. 2004. Introducing bahiagrass in peanut/cotton cropping systems-effects on soil physical characteristics. Abstract No. 3637 of the ASA-CSSA-SSSA international annual meetings. Seattle, WA. October 31–November 4, 2004.
  48. Zentner, R.P., D.D. Wall, C.N. Nagy, E.G. Smith, D.L. Young, P.R. Miller, C.A. Campbell, B.G. McConkey, S.A. Brandt, G.P. Lafond, A.M. Johnston, and D.A. Derksen. 2002. Economics of crop diversification and soil tillage opportunities in the Canadian prairies. Agronomy Journal 94: 216–230.

Chapter 9: Planting in Cover Crop Residue

  1. Ashford, D.L., and D.W. Reeves. 2003. Use of a mechanical roller crimper as an alternative kill method for cover crop. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 18(1): 37–45.
  2. Derpsch, R., C.H. Roth, N. Sidiras, and U. Köpke. 1991. Controle da erosão no Paraná, Brazil: Sistemas de cobertura do solo, plantio directo e prepare conservacionista do solo. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Eschborn, SP 245, Germany.
  3. Kornecki, T. S., A.J. Price, and R.L. Raper. 2006. Performance of different roller designs in terminating rye cover crop and reducing vibration. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 22(5): 633–641.
  4. Kornecki, T.S., R.L. Raper, F.J. Arriaga, E.B. Schwab and J.S. Bergtold. 2009a.  Impact Of Rye Rolling Direction And Different No-Till Row-Cleaners On Cotton Emergence And Yield. Transactions of the ASAE 52(2): 383–391
  5. Kornecki, T.S., A.J. Price, R.L. Raper and J.S. Bergtold. 2009b. Effectiveness of Different Herbicide Applicators Mounted on A Roller Crimper for accelerated Rye Cover Crop Termination. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 25(6): 819–826.
  6. Mississippi State University. 2007. Cotton 2008 Planning Budgets. Budget Report 2007‐01. Department of Agricultural Economics, Mississippi State University: Mississippi State, MS.
  7. Raper, R.L., P.A. Simionescu, T.S. Kornecki, A.J. Price, and D.W. Reeves. 2004. Reducing vibration while maintaining efficacy of rollers to terminate cover crops. Cover crop rollers: a new component of conservation tillage systems. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 20(5): 581–584.

Chapter 10: Soil Fertility Management

  1. Azooz, R.H., and M.A. Arshad. 1996. Soil infiltration and hydraulic conductivity under long-term no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 76: 143–152.
  2. Blevins, R.L., G.W. Thomas, M.S. Smith, W.W. Frye, and P.L. Cornelius. 1983. Changes in soil properties after 10 years continuous non-tilled and conventionally tilled corn. Soil and Tillage Research 3: 135–146.
  3. Caires, E.F., G. Barth, and F.J. Garbuio. 2005. Lime application in the establishment of a no-till system for grain crop production in Southern Brazil. Soil and Tillage Research 89: 3–12.
  4. Chancy, H.F., and E.J. Kamprath. 1987. Effect of nitrapyrin rate on nitrification in soils having different organic matter contents. Soil Science 144: 29–35.
  5. Cockroft, B., and K.A. Olsson. 2000. Degradation of soil structure due to coalescence of aggregates in no-till no-traffic beds in irrigated crops. Australian Journal of Soil Research 38: 61–70.
  6. Conyers, M.K., D.P. Heenan, W.J. McGhie, and G.P. Poile. 2003. Amelioration of acidity with time by limestone under contrasting tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 72: 85–94.
  7. Costa, A., and C.A. Rosolem. 2007. Liming in the transition to no-till under a wheat-soybean rotation. Soil and Tillage Research 97: 207–217.
  8. Crouse, D.A., T.J. Smyth, C.R. Crozier, S. Shah and B.R. Cleveland. 2014. Livestock and poultry manure production rates and nutrient content. In 2014 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual, Table 4.16. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University: Raleigh, NC. 
  9. Crozier, C.R. 2017. Unpublished.
  10. Crozier, C.R., L.D. King, and G.D. Hoyt. 1994. Tracing nitrogen movement in corn production systems in the North Carolina Piedmont: analysis of nitrogen pool size. Agronomy Journal 86: 642–649.
  11. Crozier, C.R., G.C. Naderman, M.R. Tucker, and R.E. Sugg. 1999. Nutrient and pH stratification with conventional and no-till management. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 30: 65–74.
  12. Drury, C.F., D.J. McKenney, W.I. Findlay, and J.D. Gaynor. 1993. Influence of tillage on nitrate loss in surface runoff and tile drainage. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57: 797–802.
  13. Eghball, B., and J.F. Power. 1999. Composted and noncomposted manure application to conventional and no-tillage systems: corn yield and nitrogen uptake. Agronomy Journal 91: 819–825.
  14. Hargrove, W.L., J.T. Reid, J.T. Touchton, and R.N. Gallaher. 1982. Influence of tillage practices on the fertility status of an acid soil double-cropped to wheat and soybeans. Agronomy Journal 74: 684–687.
  15. House, G.J., B.R. Stinner, D.A. Crossley, Jr., E.P. Odum, and G.W. Langdale. 1984. Nitrogen cycling in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems in the Southern Piedmont. Journal Soil and Water Conservation 39: 194–200.
  16. Howard, D.D., M.E. Essington, and D.D. Tyler. 1999. Vertical phosphorus and potassium stratification in no-till cotton soils. Agronomy Journal 91: 266–269.
  17. Hudak-Wise, C.M. 2013. Sampling for plant analysis. Agronomic sampling folder No. 5. North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Agronomy Division: Raleigh, NC.
  18. Ismail, I., R.L. Blevins, and W.W. Frye. 1994. Long-term no-tillage effects on soil properties and continuous corn yields. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58: 193–198.
  19. Jacobsen, J.S., and R.L. Westerman. 1991. Stratification of soil acidity derived from nitrogen fertilization in winter wheat tillage systems. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 22: 1335–1346.
  20. James, D.W., and K.L. Wells. 1990. Soil sample collection and handling: technique based on source and degree of field variability. In Soil Testing and Plant Analysis, 3rd ed., Westerman, R.L., et al. (eds.). pp. 25–44. Soil Science Society of America book series No. 3. Madison, WI.
  21. Kells, J.J., C.E. Rieck, R.L. Blevins, and W.M. Muir. 1980. Atrazine dissipation as affected by surface pH and tillage. Weed Science 28: 101–104. 
  22. Letaw, M.J., V.A. Bandel, and M.S. McIntosh. 1984. Influence of soil sample depth on soil test results in continuous no-till fields. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 15: 1–14.
  23. Madari, B., P.L.O.A. Machado, E. Torres, A.G. de Andrade, and L.I.O. Valencia. 2005. No tillage and crop rotation effects on soil aggregation and organic carbon in a Rhodic Ferralsol from southern Brazil. Soil and Tillage Research 80: 185–200.
  24. McGarry, D., B.J. Bridge, and B.J. Radford. 2000. Contrasting soil physical properties after zero and traditional tillage of an alluvial soil in the semi-arid subtropics. Soil and Tillage Research 53: 105–115.
  25. Meisinger, J.J., and G.W. Randall. 1991. Estimating nitrogen budgets for soil-crop systems. In Managing nitrogen for groundwater quality and farm profitability, Follett, R.F., et al. (eds.). pp. 85–124. Soil Science Society of America: Madison, WI.
  26. Mengel, D.B. 1982. Developing fertilizer programs for conservation tillage. In Proceedings of the Indiana Plant Food and Agricultural Chemicals Conference. pp. 14–15. Purdue University: West Lafayette, IN.
  27. Mitchell, C.C., and S. Tu. 2005. Long-term evaluation of poultry litter as a source of nitrogen for cotton and corn. Agronomy Journal 97: 399–407.
  28. Naderman, G., B.G. Brock, G.B. Reddy, and C.W. Raczkowski. 2006. Long term no-tillage: effects on soil carbon and soil density within the prime crop root zone. Project report to Corn Growers Association of North Carolina, Cotton Inc., and the North Carolina Soybean Producers Association.
  29. Osmond, D.L., C.R. Crozier, and D.H. Hardy. 1997. Soil Facts: Careful Soil Sampling – The Key to Reliable Soil Test Information. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service publication AG–439–30.
  30. Osmond, D.L., N. Rannells, M.G. Wagger, G.D. Hoyt, G. Naderman, J.L. Havlin, and S. Hodges. 2000. Considering no-till as a nitrogen-reducing best management practice. North Carolina State University Soil Science and Crop Science Departmental report to the Neuse Education team. 
  31. Randall, G.W. 1980. Fertilization practices for conservation tillage. In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Fertilizer and Agricultural Chemical Dealers Conference. Iowa State University: Des Moines, IA. January 8–9, 1980.
  32. Rhoton, F.E. 2000. Influence of time on soil response to no-till practices Soil Science Society of America Journal 64: 700–709.
  33. Shelton, C.H., F.D. Tompkins, and D.D. Tyler. 1983. Soil erosion from five soybean tillage systems. Journal of Soil Water Conservation 38: 425–428.
  34. Singh, P., and R.S. Kanwar. 1995. Simulating NO3-N transport to subsurface drain flows as affected by tillage under continuous corn using modified RZWQM. Transactions of the ASAE 38: 499–506.
  35. Thomas, G.W., G.R. Haszler, and R.L. Blevins. 1996. The effects of organic matter and tillage on maximum compactability of soils using the proctor test. Soil Science 161: 502–508.
  36. Tyler, D.D., and D.D. Howard. 1991. Soil sampling patterns for assessing no-tillage fertilization techniques. Journal of Fertilizer Issues 8: 52–56.
  37. Tyler, D.D., J.R. Overton, and A.Y. Chambers. 1983. Tillage effects on soil properties, diseases, cyst nematodes, and soybean yields. Journal of Soil Water Conservation 38: 374–376.
  38. Tyler, D.D., G.V. Wilson, J. Logan, G.W. Thomas, R.L. Blevins, W.E. Caldwell, and M. Dravillis. 1992. Tillage and cover crop effects on nitrate leaching. In Proceedings of the 1992 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference, Mullen, M.D., and B.N. Duck (eds.). Special publication No. 92–01. pp. 1–5. The University of Tennessee: Knoxville, TN.
  39. Varco, J.J., W.W. Frye, M.S. Smith, and C.T. MacKown. 1989. Tillage effects on nitrogen recovery by corn from a nitrogen-15 labeled legume cover crop. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53: 822–827.
  40. Wagger, M.G., and H.P. Denton. 1989. Influence of cover crop and wheel traffic on soil physical properties in continuous no-till corn. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53: 1206–1210.
  41. Wells, K.L. 1985. Soil tests and conservation till: are they compatible? Solutions 29(7): 34–45.
  42. Wright, S.F., J.L. Starr, and I.C. Paltineanu. 1999. Changes in aggregate stability and concentration of glomalin during tillage management transition. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63(6): 1825–1829.
  43. Zublena, J.P., and J.R. Anderson, Jr. 1994. Soil Facts: Starter fertilizers for corn production. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service publication AG–439–29.

Chapter 11: Weed Management and Herbicide Resistance

  1. Bowman, G. 2002. Steel in the Field. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education: Beltsville, MD.
  2. Curran, W.S., D.D. Lingenfelter, and L. Garling. 2009. An Introduction to Weed Management for Conservation Tillage Systems. Conservation Tillage Series No. 2. Penn State University.
  3. Gallandt, E.R., M. Liebman, and D.R. Huggins. 1999. Improving soil quality: Implications for weed management. In Expanding the context of weed management, Buhler, D.D. (ed.). pp. 95–121. Food Products Press/Haworth Press: New York, NY.
  4. Hartzler, B. 2014. Group 4 (Growth regulator herbicides) Resistance in Weeds. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, Integrated Crop Management article.
  5. Heap, I. 2016. Herbicide resistant weeds by species and site of action. International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds: Corvallis, OR.
  6. Katsvairo, T.W., D.L. Wright, J.J. Marois, D.L. Hartzog, J.R. Rich, and P.J. Wiatrak. 2006. Sod-livestock integration into the peanut-cotton rotation: a system farming approach. Agronomy Journal 98: 1156–1171.
  7. Kipling, B., H. Schomberg, W. Reeves, and A. Clark. 2007. Managing Cover Crops in Conservation Tillage Systems. In Managing Cover Crops Profitably 3rd ed., Clark, A. (ed.). pp. 44–61. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education: College Park, MD. 
  8. Liebman, M., and E. R. Gallandt. 1997. Many little hammers: ecological approaches for management of crop–weed interactions. In Ecology in agriculture, Jackson, L.E. (ed.). pp. 291–343. Academic Press: San Diego, CA.
  9. Locke, M.A., K.N. Reddy, and R.M. Zablotowicz. 2002. Weed management in conservation crop production systems. Weed Biology and Management 2: 123-132.
  10. Magdoff, F.M. 2007. Ecological agriculture: principles, practices and constraints. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 22(2): 109–117.
  11. Merfield, C. 2015. False and Stale Seedbeds: The most effective non-chemical weed management tools for cropping and pasture establishment. The BHU Future Farming Centre Bulletin 2015 (V4). 
  12. Mohler, C., and A. DiTommaso. Unpublished. Manage Weeds on Your Farm: A Guide to Ecological Strategies. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education: College Park, MD. 
  13. Morse, R., D. Roos, and C. Cash. Unpublished chapter. Implementing Conservation Agriculture for Conventional and Organic Vegetables. In Conservation Tillage Systems in the Southeast: Production, Profitability and Stewardship, Bergtold, J.S., and M. Sailus (eds.). Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education: College Park, MD.
  14. Nordell, E. and A. Nordell, 2009. Weed the soil, not the crop—a whole farm approach to weed management, revised edition. Acres USA 40(6).
  15. Phelan, P.L. 2004. Connecting below-ground and above-ground food webs: the role of organic matter in biological buffering. In Soil organic matter in sustainable agriculture, Magdoff, F.M., and R.R. Weil (eds.). pp. 199–225. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.
  16. Reeves, D.W., A.J. Price, and M.G. Patterson. 2005. Evaluation of three winter cereals for weed control in conservation-tillage non-transgenic cotton. Weed Technology 19: 731–736. 
  17. Tanaka, D.L., R.L. Anderson, and S.C. Rao. 2005. Crop sequencing to improve use of precipitation and synergize crop growth. Agronomy Journal 97: 238–240.
  18. Teasdale, J.R., L.O. Brandsaeter, A. Calegari, and F. Skora Neto. 2007. Cover Crops and Weed Management. In Non-Chemical Weed Management: Principles, Concepts and Technology, Upadhyaya, M., and R. Blackshaw (eds.). pp. 49–64. CAB International: Wallingford, United Kingdom.
  19. Yunasa, I.A., and P.J. Newton. 2003. Plants for amelioration of subsoil constraints and hydrological control: the primer-plant concept. Plant and Soil 257: 261–281.

Chapter 12: Plant-Parasitic Nematode Management

  1. All, J.N., R.S. Hussey, and D.G. Cummins. 1984. Southern corn billbug (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and plant parasitic nematodes: Influence of notillage, coulter-in-row-chiseling, and insecticides on severity of damage to corn. Journal of Economic Entomology 77: 178–182.
  2. Lawrence, K., A. Hagan, R. Norton, T.R. Faske, R. Hutmacker, J. Muller, D.L. Wright, I. Small, R.C. Kemerait, C. Overstreet, P. Price, G. Lawrence, T. Allen, S. Atwell, A. Jones, S. Thomas, N. Goldberg, R. Boman, J. Goodson, H. Kelly, J. Woodward, and H. Mehl. 2017. Cotton Disease Loss Estimate Committee Report, 2016. In Proceedings of the 2017 Beltwide Cotton Conference Volume 1: 150–151. National Cotton Council of America: Memphis, TN.
  3. Bridge, J., and J.L. Starr. 2007. Plant nematodes of agriculture importance a color handbook. Plant Protection Handbook Series. Academic Press: Burlington, MA.
  4. Brown, R.H., and B.R. Kerry. 1987. Principles and Practices of Nematode Control in Crops. Academic Press: Orlando, FL.
  5. Diez, A., G.W. Lawrence, and K.S. Lawrence. 2003. Nematode post-infection development on cotton following separate and concomitant parasitism by Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. Journal of Nematology 35: 422–429. 
  6. Dropkin, V.H. 1980. Introduction to Plant Pathology. John Wiley and Sons: New York, NY.
  7. Gazaway, W.S., K.S. Lawrence, and J.R. Akridge. 2007. Impact of crop rotation and fumigation on cotton production in reniform infested fields. In Proceedings of the 2007 National Beltwide Cotton Conference, Volume 1: 1357–1360. National Cotton Council: Memphis TN.
  8. Fortunm, B.A., and D.L. Karlen. 1985. Effect of tillage systems and irrigation on population densities of plant nematodes in field corn. Journal of Nematology 17: 25–28.
  9. Hartman, G.L., J.B. Sinclair, and J.C. Rupe. Compendium of Soybean Diseases, 4th ed. American Phytopathological Society Publications: St. Paul, MN. 
  10. Jones, J.R., K.S. Lawrence, and G.W. Lawrence. 2006. Use of winter cover crops in cotton cropping for management of Rotylenchulus reniformis. Nematropica 36: 53–66. 
  11. Kirkpatrick, T.L., and C.S. Rothrock. 2001. Cotton Compendium, 2nd ed. American Phytopathological Society Publications: St. Paul, MN. 
  12. Klink, V.P., G.W. Lawrence, P.D. Matsye, and K.C. Showmaker. 2010. The application of a developmental genomics approach to study the resistant reaction of soybean to the soybean cyst nematode. Nematropica 40: 1–10.
  13. Kokalis-Burelle, N., D.M. Porter, R. Rodriguez-Kabana, D.H. Smith, and P. Subrahmanyan. 1997. Compendium of Peanut Diseases, 2nd ed. American Phytopathological Society Publications: St. Paul, MN. 
  14. Lawrence, G.W., R.A. Doshi, R.L. King, K.S. Lawrence, and J. Caceres. 2008. Nematode Management using Remote Sensing Technology, Self-Organized Maps and Variable Rate Nematicide Applications. In Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference 4. Lubbock, TX. September 10–14, 2007.
  15. Lawrence, G.W., K.S. Lawrence, and J. Caceres. 2007. Options after the furrow is closed. In Proceedings of the National Beltwide Cotton Conference, Volume 1: 598–601. National Cotton Council: Memphis TN.
  16. Lawrence, K.S., Y. Feng, G.W. Lawrence, C.H. Burmester, and S.H. Norwood. 2005. Accelerated Degradation of Aldicarb and its Metabolites in Cotton Field Soils. Journal of Nematology 37: 190–197. 
  17. Lawrence, K.S., and G.W. Lawrence. 2007. Performance of the new nematicide treatments on cotton. In Proceedings of the National Beltwide Cotton Conference, Volume 1: 602–605. National Cotton Council: Memphis TN. 
  18. Lawrence, K.S., G.W. Lawrence, and E. van Santen. 2005. Effect of controlled cold storage on recovery of Rotylenchulus reniformis from naturally infested soil. Journal of Nematology 37: 272–275. 
  19. Lawrence, K.S., A.J. Price, G.W. Lawrence, J.R. Jones, and J.R. Akridge. 2008. Weed hosts for Rotylenchulus reniformis in cotton fields rotated with corn in the southeast United States. Nematropica 38: 13–22.
  20. Lawrence, G.W., and K.S. McLean. 1999. Plant Parasitic Nematode Pests of Soybeans. In Soybean Production in the Mid South, Heatherly, L.G., and H.F. Hodges (eds.). pp. 291–308. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. 
  21. Lynch, J.M., and L.M. Panting. 1979. Cultivation and the soil biomass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 12: 29–33.
  22. McSorley, R., and R.N. Gallaher. 1993. Effect of crop rotation and tillage on nematode densities in tropical corn. Journal of Nematology 25: 814–819.
  23. McSorley, R. 1999. Host Suitability of Potential Cover Crops for Root-knot Nematodes. Journal of Nematology 31: 619–623. 
  24. Niblack, T.L., P.R. Arelli, G.R. Noel, C.H. Opperman, J.H. Orf, D.P. Schmitt, J.G. Shannon, and G.L. Tylka. 2002. A revised classification scheme for genetically diverse populations of Heterodera glycines. Journal of Nematology 34: 279–288.
  25. Nyvall, R.F. 1999. Field Crop Diseases, 3rd ed. Iowa State University Press: Ames, IA.
  26. Overstreet, C., M. Wolcott, G. Burris, and D. Burns. 2009. Management Zones for Cotton Nematodes. In Proceedings of the National Beltwide Cotton Conference, Volume 1: 167–176. National Cotton Council: Memphis, TN.
  27. Rich, J.R., J.A. Brito, R. Kaur, and J.A. Ferrell. 2009. Weed species as hosts of Meloidogyne: A review. Nematropica 39: 157–185.
  28. Riggs, R.D., and D.P. Schmitt. 1988. Complete characterization of the race scheme for Heterodera glycines. Journal of Nematology 20: 392–395.
  29. Robinson, A.F., R.N. Inserra, E.P. Caswell-Chen, N. Vovlas, and A. Troccoli. 1997. Rotylenchulus species: Identification, distribution, host ranges, and crop plant resistance. Nematropica 27: 127–180.
  30. Sasser, J.N. 1989. Plant-parasitic nematodes: the farmer’s hidden enemy. North Carolina State University: Raleigh, NC.
  31. Schmitt, D.P., J.A. Wrather, and R.D. Riggs. 2004. Biology and Management of the Soybean Cyst Nematode, 2nd ed. Schmitt and Associates: Marceline, MO.
  32. Scott, T.Z., K.S. Lawrence, J.D. Castillo, K. Glass, and E. van Santen. 2011. Fusarium wilt identification and root-knot nematode effects on commercial cotton cultivars in 2010. In Proceedings of the National Beltwide Cotton Conference, Volume 1: 224–229. National Cotton Council: Memphis TN.
  33. Starr, J.L., R. Cook, and J. Bridge. 2002. Plant resistance to parasitic nematodes. CAB International: Wallingford, United Kingdom.
  34. Sumner, D.R., B. Doupnik, and M.G. Boosalis. 1981. Effects of reduced tillage and multiple cropping on plant diseases. Annual Review of Phytopathology 19: 167–187.
  35. Timper, P., R.F. Davis, and P.G. Tillaman. 2006. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops used in cotton production. Journal of Nematology 38: 83–89.
  36. Thomas, S.H. 1978. Population densities of nematodes under seven tillage regimes. Journal of Nematology 10: 24–27.
  37. Wang, K.H., R. McSorley, and R.N. Gallaher. 2004. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode populations levels in north Florida. Journal of Nematology 36: 517–523.
  38. White, D.G. 1999. Compendium of Corn Diseases, 3rd ed. American Phytopathological Society Publications: St. Paul, MN

Chapter 13: Insect Pest Management

  1. All, J.N. 1978. Insect relationship in no-tillage corn. In Proceedings of the 1st Annual Southeastern No-Till Systems Conference, Touchton, J.T., and D.G. Cummins (eds.). Georgia Experiment Station special publication No. 5. pp. 17–19. Experiment, GA. November 29, 1978.
  2. All, J.N., and B. Rogers. 1980. Insect management in no-till. In Proceedings of the 3rd Annual No-Tillage Systems Conference, Gallaher, R.N. (ed.). pp. 12–15. Gainesville, FL. June 19, 1980.
  3. All, J.N., B.H. Tanner, and P.M. Tanner. 1992. Influence of no tillage practices on tobacco thrips infestations in cotton. In Proceedings of the 1992 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference, Mullen, M.D., and B.N. Duck (eds.). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station special publication No. 92-01. pp. 77–78. Jackson and Milan, TN. July 21–23, 1992.
  4. All, J.N., and J.M. Musick. 1986. Management of vertebrate and invertebrate pests. In No-tillage and surface-tillage agriculture; the tillage revolution, Sprague, M.A., and G.B. Triplett (eds.). pp. 347–387. Wiley: New York, NY.
  5. Altieri, M.A., and C.L. Nicholls. 2003. Soil fertility management and insect pests: harmonizing soil and plant health in agroecosystems. Soil and Tillage Research 72: 203–211.
  6. Andow, D.A. 1991. Vegetational diversity and arthropod population response. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 561–586.
  7. Andow, D.A. 1992. Fate of eggs of first-generation Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in three conservation tillage systems. Environmental Entomology 21: 388–393.
  8. Bruck, D.J., and L.C. Lewis. 2002. Rainfall and crop residue effects on soil dispersion and Beauveria bassiana spread to corn. Applied Soil Ecology 20: 183–190.
  9. Brust, G.E., and G.J. House. 1990. Effects of soil moisture, no-tillage and predators on southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber) survival in corn agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 31: 199–216.
  10. Brust, G.E., B.R. Stinner, and D.A. McCartney. 1986. Predator activity and predation in corn agroecosystems. Environmental Entomology 15: 1017–1021.
  11. Buntin, G.D. 2007. Insect management, In A Guide to Corn Production in Georgia 2007, Lee, D. (ed.). pp. 23–31. The University of Georgia, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Cooperative Extension Service, Crop and Soil Sciences Department: Athens, GA.
  12. Carcamo, H.A. 1995. Effect of tillage on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A farm-scale study in central Alberta. The Canadian Entomologist 127: 631–639.
  13. Castle del Conte, S.C., N.A. Bosque-Pérez, D.J. Schotzko, and S.O. Guy. 2005. Impact of tillage practices on Hessian fly-susceptible and resistant spring wheat cultivars. Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 805–813.
  14. Clark, A. (ed.). 2007. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 3rd ed. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education: College Park, MD.
  15. Chapin, J.W., and J.S. Thomas. 2003. Burrower bugs (Heteroptera: Cydnidae) in peanut: seasonal species abundance, tillage effects, grade reduction effects, insecticide efficacy, and management. Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 1142–1152.
  16. Chapin, J.W., and J.S. Thomas. 2005. Insect pest management issues in strip till peanut production. In Proceedings of the 27th Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference, Busscher, W., J. Frederick, and S. Robinson (eds.). pp. 57–58. Florence, SC. June 27–29, 2005.
  17. Chapin, J.W., J.S. Thomas, and M.J. Sullivan. 1992. Spring- and fall-tillage system effects on Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) emergence from a coastal plain soil. Journal of Entomological Science 27: 293–300.
  18. Chilcutt, C.F., and J.E. Matocha. 2007. Effects of crop rotation, tillage, and fertilizer applications on sorghum head insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 100: 88–94.
  19. Clark, M.S., S.H. Gage, and J.R. Spence. 1997. Habitats and management associated with common ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Michigan agricultural landscape. Environmental Entomology 26: 519–527
  20. Clement, S.L., L.R. Elberson, F.L. Young, J.R. Alldredge, R.H. Ratcliffe, and C. Hennings. 2003. Variable Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) population in cereal production systems in western Washington. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 76: 567–577.
  21. Ferguson, H.J., R.M. McPherson, and W.A. Allen. 1984. Effect of four soybean cropping systems on the abundance of foliage- inhabiting insect predators. Environmental Entomology 13: 1105–1112.
  22. Funderburk, J.E., L.P. Pedigo, and E.C. Berry. 1983. Seedcorn maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) emergence in conventional and reduced-tillage soybean systems in Iowa. Journal of Economic Entomology 76: 131–134. 
  23. Funderburk, J.E., Wright, D.L., and I.D. Teare. 1990. Preplant tillage effects on population dynamics of soybean pests. Crop Science 30: 686–690. 
  24. Gardner, W.A., and J.N. All. 1985. Cover-crop effects on billbug damage to seedling corn and sorghum in conservation tillage systems. In Proceedings of the 1985 Southern Region No-Till Conference, Hargrove, W.L., F.C. Boswell, and G.W. Langdale (eds.). pp. 205–207. Griffin, GA. July 16–17, 1985.
  25. Gaylor, M.J., and M.A. Foster. 1987. Cotton pest management in the southeastern United States as influenced by conservation tillage practices. In Arthropods in Conservation Tillage Systems, House, G.J., and B.R. Stinner (eds.). Entomological Society of America miscellaneous publication No. 65. pp. 29–54. College Park, MD.
  26. Gregory, W.W., and G.J. Musick. 1976. Insect management in reduced tillage systems. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 22: 302–304.
  27. Greenberg, S.M., A.T. Showler, T.W. Sappington, and J.M. Bradford. 2004. Effects of burial and soil conditions on the postharvest mortality of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in fallen cotton fruits. Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 409–413.
  28. Greene, J.K., and J.W. Chapin. 2008. Management of soybean insects. In 2008 South Carolina Soybean Production Guide, Wiatrak, P.A. (ed.). pp. 65–72. Clemson Extension publication EC 501. 
  29. Griffith, D.R., J.V. Mannering, and J.E. Box. 1986. Soil and moisture management with reduced tillage. In No tillage and surface tillage agriculture, Sprague, M.A., and G.B. Triplett (eds.). pp. 19–57. Wiley: New York, NY.
  30. Hammond, R.B. 1984. Effects of rye cover crop management on seedcorn maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) populations in soybeans. Environmental Entomology 13: 1302–1305.
  31. Hammond, R.B. 1987. Pest management in reduced tillage soybean cropping systems. In Arthropods in Conservation Tillage Systems, House, G.J., and B.R. Stinner (eds.). pp. 19–28. Entomological Society of America miscellaneous publication 65. College Park, MD.
  32. Hammond, R.B. 1989. Soybean insect pest management and conservation tillage: options for the growers. In Proceedings of the 1989 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference, Teare, I.D. (ed.). pp. 3–5. Institute of Food and Agricultural Science special bulletin No. 89–1. Tallahassee, FL. July 12–13, 1989. 
  33. Hesler, L.S., and R.K. Berg. 2003. Tillage impacts cereal-aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) infestations in spring small grains. Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 1792–1797.
  34. Honek, A., Z. Martinkova, and V. Jarosik. 2003. Ground beetles (Carabidae) as seed predators. European Journal of Entomology 100: 531–544.
  35. Hopkins, A.R., A.R. Taft, and W. James. 1972. Comparison of mechanical cultivation and herbicides on emergence of bollworms and tobacco budworms. Journal of Economic Entomology 65: 870–872.
  36. House, G.J., and J.N. All. 1981. Carabid beetles in soybean agroecosystems. Environmental Entomology 10: 194–196.
  37. House, G.J., and R.W. Parmalee. 1985. Comparison of soil arthropods and earthworms from conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems. Soil and Tillage Research 5: 351–360.
  38. Hummel, R.L., J.F. Walgenbach, M.E. Barbercheck, G.G. Kennedy, G.D. Hoyt, and C. Arellano. 2002. Effects of production practices on soil-borne entomopathogens in western North Carolina vegetable systems. Environmental Entomology 31: 84–91.
  39. Kaplan, I., and M.D. Eubanks. 2002. Disruption of cotton aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) – natural enemy dynamics by red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environmental Entomology 31: 1175–1183.
  40. Larochelle, A., and M.C. Larivière. 2003. A natural history of the ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of America north of Mexico. Pensoft: Sofia, Bulgaria.
  41. Lema, K.M., R.N. Gallaher, and S.L. Poe. 1980. Pest management as affected by tillage methods in soybeans, corn and sorghum. In Proceedings of the 3rd Annual No-Tillage Systems Conference, Gallaher, R.N. (ed.). pp. 97–111. Williston, FL. June 19, 1980.
  42. Leonard, B.R., P.A. Clay, R.L. Hutchinson, and J.B. Graves. 1993. Cultural management of cutworm spp. in conservation tillage system for cotton. In Proceedings of the 1993 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture, Bollich, P.K. (ed.). pp. 108–113. Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station Manuscript No. 93–86–7122. Monroe, LA. June 15–17, 1993.
  43. Leonard, B.R., K. Torrey and R.L. Hutchinson. 2000. Influence of conservation tillage on cotton insect pest ecology: a case study with the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. In Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture, Bollich, P.K. (ed.). pp. 43–44. Monroe, LA. June 19–21, 2000. Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station Manuscript No. 00–86–0205. Crowley, LA.
  44. Luckmann, W.H., and R.L. Metcalf. 1994. The pest management concept. In Introduction to Insect Pest Management, Metcalf, R.L., and W.H. Luckmann (eds.). pp. 1–34. John Wiley and Sons: New York, NY.
  45. Manley, D.G., J.A. DuRant, P.J. Bauer, and J.R. Frederick. 2002. Rye cover crop, surface tillage, crop rotation, and soil insecticide impact on thrips numbers in cotton in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 19: 217–226.
  46. Marti, O.G., and D.M. Olson. 2007. Effect of tillage on cotton aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae), pathogenic fungi, and predators in south central Georgia cotton fields. Journal of Entomological Science 42: 354–367.
  47. Mullins, C.A., M.C. Saunders, II, T.W. Leslie, D.J. Biddinger, and S.J. Fleischer. 2005. Toxic and behavioral effects to Carabidae of seed treatments used on Cry3Bb1- and Cry1Ab/c-protected corn. Environmental Entomology 34: 1626–1636.
  48. Musick, G.J., and L.E. Beasley. 1978. Effect of the crop residue management system on pest problems in field corn (Zea mays L.) production. American Society of Agronomy special publication 31: 173–186.
  49. Olson, D.M., R.F. Davis, S.L. Brown, P. Roberts, and S.C. Phatak. 2006. Cover crop, rye residue and in-furrow treatment effects on thrips. Journal of Applied Entomology 130: 302–308.
  50. Parajulee, M.N., R.B. Shrestha, and J.F. Leser. 2006. Influence of tillage, planting date and Bt cultivar on seasonal abundance and within-plant distribution pattern of thrips and cotton leafhoppers in cotton. International Journal of Pest Management 52: 249–260.
  51. Peck, S.L., B. McQuaid, and C.L. Campbell. 1998. Using ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as a biological indicator of agroecosystem condition. Environmental Entomology 27: 1102–1110.
  52. Pike, K., R. Veseth, B. Miller, R. Schirman, L. Smith, and H. Homan. 1993. Hessian fly management in conservation tillage systems for the Inland Pacific Northwest. In Pacific Northwest Conservation Tillage Handbook. Chapter 8, No. 15. Published by University of Idaho: Moscow, ID; Washington State University: Pullman, WA; and Oregon State University: Corvallis, OR.
  53. Purvis, G., A. Fadl, and T. Bolger. 2001. A multivariate analysis of cropping effects on Irish ground beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in mixed arable and grass farmland. Annals of Applied Biology 139: 351–360.
  54. Quaintance, A.L., and C.T. Brues. 1905. The Cotton Bollworm. USDA Bureau of Entomology bulletin No. 50. USDA: Washington, D.C.
  55. Riechert, S.E. 1998. The role of spiders and their conservation in the agroecosystem. In Enhancing biological control: habitat management to promote natural enemies of agricultural pests, Pickett, C.H., and R.L. Bugg (eds.). pp. 211–237. University of California: Berkeley, CA.
  56. Roberts, P.M., and J.N. All. 1993. Influence of canola, wheat, and clover as cover crops on southern corn billbug infestations in no-tillage and plow-tillage corn. In Proceedings of the 1993 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture, Bollich, P.K. (ed.). pp. 106–107. Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station Manuscript No. 93–86–7122. Monroe, LA. June 15–17, 1993. 
  57. Ruberson, J.R., W.J. Lewis, D.J. Waters, O. Stapel, and P.B. Haney. 1995. Dynamics of insect populations in a reduced-tillage, crimson clover/cotton system. In Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference. pp. 814–821. National Cotton Council: Memphis, TN.
  58. Rypstra, A.L., and S.D. Marshall. 2005. Augmentation of soil detritus affects the spider community and herbivory in a soybean agroecosystem. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 116: 149–157.
  59. Schneider, J.C. 2003. Overwintering of Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton fields of Northeast Mississippi. Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 1433–1447.
  60. Schomberg H.H., W.J. Lewis, P. Tillman, D. Olson, P. Timper, D. Wauchope, S. Phatak, and M. Jay. 2003. Conceptual model for sustainable cropping systems in the Southeast: cotton system. Journal of Crop Production 8: 307–327.
  61. Sloderbeck, P.E., and K.V. Yeargan. 1983. Green cloverworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in conventional and double-crop, no-till soybeans. Journal of Economic Entomology 76: 785–791. 
  62. Stinner, B.R., and G.J. House. 1990. Arthropods and other invertebrates in conservation-tillage agriculture. Annual Review of Entomology 35: 299–318.
  63. Stinner, B.R., D.A. McCartney, and D.M. Van Doren, Jr. 1988. Soil and foliage arthropod communities in conventional, reduced and no-tillage corn (maize, Zea mays L.) systems: A comparison after 20 years of continuous cropping. Soil and Tillage Research 11: 147–158.
  64. Stinner, B.R., D.A. McCartney, and W.A. Rubink. 1984. Some observations on ecology of the stalk borer Papaipema nebris (Gn.: Noctuidae) in no-tillage corn agroecosystems. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 19: 224–234.
  65. Tillman, G., H. Schomberg, S. Phatak, B. Mullinix, S. Lachnicht, P. Timper, and D. Olson. 2004. Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 1217–1232. 
  66. Troxler, N.N., Jr., and D.J. Boethel. 1984. The influence of tillage practices and row spacing on soybean insect populations in Louisiana. Journal of Economic Entomology 77: 1571–1579.
  67. Witmer, J.E., J.A. Hough-Goldstein, and J.D. Pesek. 2003. Ground-dwelling and foliar arthropods in four cropping systems. Environmental Entomology 32: 366–376.
  68. Zehnder, G.W., and J.J Linduska. 1987. Influence of conservation tillage practices on populations of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in rotated and nonrotated tomato fields. Environmental Entomology 16: 135–139.
  69. Zeiss, M.R., R.L. Brandenburg, and J.W. Van Duyn. 1993. Effect of disk harrowing on subsequent emergence of Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) adults from wheat stubble. Journal of Entomological Science 28: 8–15.

Chapter 14: Water Management

  1. Bosch, D.D., T.L. Potter, C.C. Truman, C. Bednarz, and T.C. Strickland. 2005. Surface runoff and lateral subsurface flow as a response to conservation tillage and soil-water conditions. Trans. American Society of Agricultural Engineers 48(6): 2137–2144.
  2. Edwards, W.M., L.D. Norton, and C.E. Redmond. 1988. Characterizing macropores that affect infiltration into nontilled soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52: 483–487.
  3. Fawcett, R.S., and S. Caruna. 2001. Better soil better yields: A guidebook to improving soil organic matter and infiltration. Conservation Technology Information Center: West Lafayette, IN.
  4. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group. 1998. Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices.
  5. Hoeft, R.G., E.D. Nafziger, R.R. Johnson, and S.R. Aldrich. 2000. Modern Corn and Soybean Production. Modern Corn and Soybean Production Publications: Savoy, IL.
  6. Lal, R., and M.K. Shukla. 2004. Principles of Soil Physics. Marcel Dekker: New York, NY.
  7. Lindstrom, M.J., and C.A. Onstad. 1984. Influence of tillage systems on soil physical parameters and infiltration after planting. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 39(2): 149–152.
  8. Mueller, D.H., R.C. Wendt, and T.C. Daniel. 1984. Soil and water losses as affected by tillage and manure application. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48(4): 896–900.
  9. Raper, R.L., D.W. Reeves, E.C. Burt, and H.A. Torbert. 1994. Conservation tillage and traffic effects on soil condition. Transactions of the ASAE 37(3): 763–768.
  10. Raper, R.L. 2005. Force requirements and soil disruption of straight and bentleg subsoilers for conservation tillage systems. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 21: 787–794.
  11. Schwab, E.B., D.W. Reeves, C.H. Burmester, and R.L Raper. 2002. Conservation tillage systems for cotton in the Tennessee Valley. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 569–577.
  12. Soileau, J.M., J.T. Touchton, B.F. Hajek, and K.H. Yoo. 1994. Sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus runoff with conventional- and conservation-tillage cotton in a small watershed. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 49(1): 82–89.
  13. Sullivan, D.G., C.C. Truman, H.H. Schomberg, D.M. Endale, and D.H. Franklin. 2007. Potential impact of conservation tillage on conserving water resources in Georgia. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 62(3): 145–152.
  14. Triplett, G.B., Jr., D.M. Van Doren, Jr., and B.L. Schmidt. 1968. Effect of corn (Zea mays L.) Stover mulch on no-tillage corn yield and water infiltration. Agronomy Journal 60(1): 236–239.
  15. Truman, C.C., J.N. Shaw, and D.W. Reeves. 2003. Tillage impacts on soil property, runoff, and soil loss variations from a Rhodic Paleudult under simulated rainfall. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 58: 258–267.
  16. Truman, C.C., J.N. Shaw, and D.W. Reeves. 2005. Tillage effects on rainfall partitioning and sediment yield from an Ultisol in Central Alabama. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 60: 89–98.

Chapter 15: Conservation Economics: Budgeting, Cover Crops and Government Programs

  1. Anand, M. 2010. Essays on the Profitability of Winter Farming Enterprises. PhD Dissertation, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Auburn University: Auburn, AL.
  2. Anand, M., J. Bergtold, G. Siri-Prieto, D.W. Reeves, R.L. Raper, and T. Morton. 2006. Profitability of Production Systems with Cotton and Peanuts Incorporating Winter Annual Grazing. In Proceedings of the 28th Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference, Schwartz, R.C., R.L. Baumhardt, and J.M. Bell (eds.). USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Report No. 06–1. Amarillo, TX. June 26–28, 2006.
  3. Ashford, D.L., and D.W. Reeves. 2003. Use of a Mechanical Roller-Crimper as a Alternative Kill Method for Cover Crops. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 18: 37–45.
  4. Balkcom, K.S. 2005. Personal Communication. USDA Agricultural Research Service National Soils Dynamics Laboratory, Auburn, AL. 
  5. Bergtold, J.S., and B. Goodman. 2007. The Economics of Conservation Tillage. Working Paper. USDA Agricultural Research Service National Soils Dynamics Laboratory.
  6. Bergtold, J.S., J.A. Terra, D.W. Reeves, J.N. Shaw, K.S. Balkcom, and R.L. Raper. 2005. Profitability and Risk Associated With Alternative Mixtures of High-Residue Cover Crops. In Proceedings of the 27th Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference, Busscher, W., J. Frederick, and S. Robinson (eds.). Florence, SC. June 27–29, 2005.
  7. Bezkorowajnyj, P.G., Gordon, A. M., and R.A. McBride. 1993. The Effect of Cattle Foot Traffic on Soil Compaction in a Silvo-Pastoral System. Agroforestry Systems 21: 1–10.
  8. Christensen, L.A. 1985. Economics of Conservation Tillage in the Southeast. In Proceedings of the of the 1985 Southern Region No-Till Conference, Hargrove, W.L., F.C. Boswell, and G.W. Langdale (eds.). p. 217–227. Griffin, GA. July 16–17, 1985.
  9. Goddard, T., M. Zoebisch, Y. Gan, W. Ellis, A. Watson, and S. Sombatpanit. 2008. No-Till Farming Systems. Special Publication No. 3 of the World Association of Soil and Water Conservation. Funny Publishing: Bangkok, Thailand.
  10. Janke, R., M. Claassen, W. Heer, J. Jost, S. Freyenerger, and D. Norman. 2002. The Use of Winter Annual Legume Cover Crops in a Wheat-Grain Sorghum Rotation in South Central Kansas. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 20(2): 69–88. 
  11. Jaenicke, E., D. Frechette, and J. Larson. 2003. Estimating Production Risk and Inefficiency Simultaneously: An Application to Cotton Cropping Systems. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 28(3): 540–557.
  12. Johnson, G., and W. Raun. 2003. Nitrogen Response Index as a Guide to Fertilizer Management. Journal of Plant Nutrition 26(2): 249–262.
  13. Kaplan, A., and J. Steinhart. Spatial Dimensions of Farm Input Intensity: A Pilot Study. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 45(1990): 128–133. 
  14. Kay, R.D., W.M. Edwards, and P.A. Duffy. 2004. Farm Management, 5th ed. McGraw Hill: New York, NY.
  15. Kell, W., and R. McKee. 1936. Farmer’s Bulletin No. 1758: Cover Crops for Soil Conservation. USDA: Washington, D.C.
  16. Kornecki, T.S., A.J. Price, and R.L. Raper. 2006. Performance of Different Roller Designs in Terminating Rye Cover Crop and Reducing Vibration. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 22: 633–641. 
  17. Larson, J., R. Roberts, D. Tyler, B. Duck, and S. Slinksy. 1998. Nitrogen-Fixing Winter Cover Crops and Production Risk: A Case Study for No-Tillage Corn. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 30: 163–174.
  18. Lu, Y.C., B.W. Watkins, and J. Teasdale. 1999. Economic Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Cropping Systems for Mid-Atlantic States. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 15: 77–93.
  19. Lu, Y.C., K.B. Watkins, J.R. Teasdale, and A.A. Abdul-Baki. 2000. Cover Crops in Sustainable Food Production. Food Reviews International 16(2): 121–157.
  20. Mannering, J.V., D.R. Griffith, and K.D. Johnson. 2000. Winter Cover Crops–Their Value and Management. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service.
  21. Mansoer Z., D.W. Reeves, and C.W. Wood. 1997. Suitability of Sunn Hemp as an Alternative Late-Summer Legume Cover Crop. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61: 246–253. 
  22. Mississippi State University. 2010. Non-Delta 2011 Planning Budgets. Budget Report 2010–16. Department of Agricultural Economics, Mississippi State University.
  23. Molnar, J., J. Bergtold, and M. Tallant. 2005. Producer Perspectives on the Conservation Security Program in Alabama. Paper presented at the 2005 Annual Rural Sociological Society Meetings. Tampa, FL. August 8–12, 2005.
  24. Morton, T.A., J.S. Bergtold, and A.J. Price. 2006. The Economics of Cover Crop Biomass for Corn and Cotton. In Proceedings of the 28th Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference, Schwartz, R.C., R.L. Baumhardt, and J.M. Bell (eds.). USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory Report No. 06–1. Amarillo, TX. June 26–28, 2006.
  25. Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), USDA. 2005. EQIP Practices and Practice Restrictions. NRCS Alabama State Office: Auburn, AL.
  26. Power, J.F., J.W. Doran, and P. T. Koerner. 1991. Hairy Vetch as a Winter Cover Crop for Dryland Corn Production. Journal of Production Agriculture 4(1): 462–467.
  27. Raper, R.L., and J.S. Bergtold. 2006. Using In-Row Subsoiling and Cover Crops to Increase Use of Conservation Agriculture in the Southern U.S. In Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Paper # 061039. Portland, OR. July 9–12, 2006.
  28. Reddy, K. 2003. Impact of Rye Cover Crop and Herbicides on Weeds, Yield, and Net Return in Narrow-Row Transgenic and Conventional Soybean. Weed Technology 17(1): 28–35.
  29. Saini, M., A.J. Price, and E. van Santen. 2005. Winter Weed Suppression by Winter Cover Crops in a Conservation–Tillage Corn and Cotton Rotation. In Proceedings of the 27th Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference,  Busscher, W., J. Frederick, and S. Robinson (eds.). Florence, SC. June 27–29, 2005.
  30. Sanders, L.D. The Economics of Conservation and Conventional Tillage. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Conservation Tillage, Mid-American International Agricultural Consortium. Mazatlan, Mexico. January 24–27, 2000.
  31. Singer, J., and T. Kaspar. 2006. Cover Crop Selection and Management for Midwest Farming Systems. University Extension, Iowa State University.
  32. Singer, J., and D. Meek. 2004. Repeated Biomass Removal Affects Soybean Resource Utilization and Yield. Agronomy Journal 96: 1382–1389.
  33. Snapp, S.S., S.M. Swinton, R. Labarta, D. Mutch, J.R. Black, R. Leep, J. Nyiraneza, and K. O’Neil. 2005. Evaluating Cover Crops for Benefits, Costs and Performance within Cropping System Niches. Agronomy Journal 97: 322–332.
  34. Sullivan, P. 2003. Overview of Cover Crops and Green Manures. National Center For Appropriate Technology (NCAT)-ATTRA.
  35. Teasdale, J., and C. Mohler. The Quantitative Relationship Between Weed Emergence and the Physical Properties of Mulches. Weed Science 48: 385–392. 
  36. University of Georgia. 2011. Printed Budgets. Extension Agricultural and Applied Economics Department, University of Georgia.
  37. Watson, S. 1999. Kansas No-Till Handbook. Department of Agriculture, Kansas State University.
  38. Weersink, A., M. Walker, C. Swanton, and J.E. Shaw. Costs of Conventional and Conservation Tillage Systems. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 47(1992): 328–334.

Chapter 16: Biofuel Feedstock Production: Crop Residues and Dedicated Bioenergy Crops

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  3. American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). 2000. Commodity Costs and Returns Estimation Handbook. AAEA: Ames, IA.
  4. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). 2009. Agricultural Machinery Management Data. ASAE D497.6. ASABE: St. Joseph, MI.
  5. Anonymous, Forest2Market. 2009. Will Bioenergy Demand Have an Effect on Wood Fiber Supply Agreements? Forest2Fuel Newsletter August 2009.
  6. Benson, V.W. Personal communication, 2010.
  7. Bhat, M.G., B.C. English, and M. Ojo. 1992. Regional Costs of Transporting Biomass Feedstocks. In Proceedings of the Liquid Fuels from Renewable Resources, Cundiff, J.S. (ed.). Nashville, TN. December 14–15, 1992.
  8. Brechbill, S., W. Tyner, and K. Ileleji. 2008. Economics of Biomass Collection, Transportation and Supply to Indiana Cellulosic and Electric Facilities. Paper presented at Farm Foundation. Berkeley, CA. June 24–25, 2008.
  9. Clark, C. 2010. Growing Switchgrass for Bioenergy: Producer Concerns and Lessons Learned. Presentation presented at a USDA Field Day. Knoxville, TN. November 16, 2010.
  10. Clark, C., B. English, and C. Garland. 2007. Competitive Bidding as a Means of Extracting and Demonstrating Farmer Willingness-to-Grow and Alternative Crop. Journal of Extension 45(2).
  11. Collins, M., Ditsch, D., Henning, J.C., Turner, L.W., Isaacs, S., and G.D. Lacefield. 2008. Round Bale Hay Storage in Kentucky. Publication AGR–171. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky: Lexington, KY.
  12. Copulos, M.R. 2007. The Hidden Cost of Oil: An Update. Paper presented to Congress. January 8, 2007. The National Defense Council Foundation.
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  14. Cundiff, J.S., N. Dias, and H.D. Sherali. 1997. A Linear Programming Approach for Designing a Herbaceous Biomass Delivery System. Bioresource Technology 59(1): 47–56.
  15. Cundiff, J.S., and R.D. Grisso. 2008. Containerized Handling to Minimize Hauling Cost of Herbaceous Biomass. Biomass and Bioenergy 32: 308–313.
  16. Cundiff, J.S., and L.S. Marsh. 1996. Harvest and Storage Costs for Bales of Switchgrass in the Southeastern United States. Bioresource Technology 56(1): 95–102.
  17. Eidman, V., D. Petrolia, L. Pham, H. Huang, and S. Ramaswamy. 2009. The Economic Feasibility of Producing Ethanol from Corn Stover and Hardwood in Minnesota. Staff paper No. P09–3. The Department of Applied Economics, The University of Minnesota.
  18. English, B., C. Short, and E. Heady. 1981. The Economic Feasibility of Crop Residues as Auxiliary Fuel in Coal-Fired Power Plants. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 63(4): 636–644.
  19. English, B., D. De La Torre Ugarte, K. Jensen, C. Hellwinckel, J. Menard, B. Wilson, R. Roberts, and M. Walsh. 2006. 25% Renewable Energy for the United States by 2025: Agricultural and Economic Impacts: Report to the 25×25 Energy Work Group. Report to the ‘25x’25 Energy Work Group, November 2006.
  20. English, B., D. Tyler, D. Mooney, J. Larson, J. Menard, C. Garland, and D. De La Torre Ugarte. 2008. Switchgrass as a Feedstock for Cellulosic Ethanol. In Platts 3rd annual cellulosic ethanol and biofuels conference presentations. McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA. 
  21. Farm Foundation. 2008. Executive Summary: Life Cycle Carbon Footprint of Biofuels. In Proceedings of the Farm Foundation Conference. Miami Beach, FL. January 28, 2008.
  22. Fuentes, R.G., and C.M. Taliaferro. 2002. Biomass Yield Stability of Switchgrass Cultivars. In Trends in New Crops and New Uses, Janick, J., and A. Whipkey (eds.). pp. 276–82. ASHS Press: Alexandria, VA.
  23. Gallagher, P., M. Dikeman, J. Fritz, E. Wailes, W. Gauther, and H. Shapouri. 2003. Biomass from Crop Residues: Cost and Supply Estimates. Publication No. AER–819. USDA Office of Energy Policy and New Uses: Washington, D.C.
  24. Gerloff, D. 2008. Switchgrass Budgets. Publication No. AE08–03.The University of Tennessee Department of Agricultural Economics.
  25. Hwang, S., and F.M. Epplin. 2007. Days Available for Harvesting Lignocellulosic Biomass. Paper presented at the 2007 Annual Meeting of the Southern Agricultural Economics Association. Mobile, AL. February 4–7.
  26. Huhnke, R.L. 2009. Round Bale Storage. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension fact sheet No. BAE–1716. Oklahoma State University.
  27. Johnson, J., D. Reicosky, R. Allmaras, D. Archer, and W. Wilhem. 2006. A Matter of Balance: Conservation and Renewable Energy. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 61(4): 120A–125A.
  28. Karlan, D., S. Birrel, and R. Hess. 2011. A Five-Year Assessment of Corn Stover Harvest in Central Iowa, USA. Soil and Tillage Research 115–116: 47–55.
  29. Khanna, M., B. Dhungana, and J. Clift on-Brown. 2008. Costs of Producing Miscanthus and Switchgrass for Bioenergy in Illinois. Biomass Bioenergy 32: 482–493.
  30. Kim, S., and B. Dale. 2004. Global Potential Bioethanol Production from Wasted Crops and Crop Residues. Biomass and Bioenergy 26: 361–375.
  31. Kiniry, J.R., K.A. Cassida, and M.A. Hussey. 2005. Switchgrass Simulation by the ALMANAC Model at Diverse Sites in the Southern US. Biomass and Bioenergy 29: 419–425.
  32. Lal, R. 2005. World Crop Residues Production and Implications of its Use as a Biofuel. Environmental International 31: 575–584. 
  33. Lal, R. 2006. Enhancing Crop Yields in the Developing Countries Through Restoration of the Soil Organic Carbon Pool in Agricultural Lands. Land Degradation and Development 17: 197–209.
  34. Lal, R. 2008. Crop Residues as Soil Amendments and Feedstock for Bioethanol Production. Waste Management 28(4): 747–758.
  35. Larson, J.A. 2008. Risk and Uncertainty at the Farm Level. Paper presented at the 2008 Farm Foundation Conference. Berkeley, CA. June 24–25, 2008.
  36. Larson, J.A., T. Yu, B.C. English. D.F. Mooney, and C. Wang. 2010a. Cost Evaluation of Alternative Switchgrass Producing, Harvesting, Storing, and Transporting Systems and their Logistics in the Southeastern U.S. Agricultural Finance Review 70: 184–200.
  37. Larson, J. A., B. C. English, and L. He. 2008. Risk and Return for Bioenergy Crops under Alternative Contracting Arrangements. Paper presented at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Southern Agricultural Economics Association (SAEA). Dallas, TX. February 2–6, 2008.
  38. Larson, J.A., D.F. Mooney, B.C. English, and D.D. Tyler. 2010b. Cost Analysis of Alternative Harvest and Storage Methods for Switchgrass in the Southeastern U.S. Paper presented at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association Meetings. Orlando, FL. February 6–9, 2010. 
  39. Larson, W., C. Clapp, W. Pierre, and Y. Morachan. 1972. Effect of Increasing Amounts of Organic Residues on Continuous Corn: II. Organic Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur. Agronomy Journal 64: 204–208.
  40. Lazarus, W. 2008. Energy Crop Production Costs and Breakeven Prices Under Minnesota Conditions. Staff paper No. 45655. University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics.
  41. McLaughlin, S., J. Bouton, D. Bransby, B. Conger, W. Ocumpaugh, D. Parrish, C. Taliaferro, K. Vogel, and S. Wullschleger. 1999. Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop. In Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses, Janick, J. (ed.). pp. 282–99. ASHS Press: Alexandria VA.
  42. McKinley, T.L, and D.C. Gerloff. 2010. Field Crops Budgets for 2010. Publication No. AE10–06. The University of Tennessee Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics: Knoxville, TN.
  43. Menard, J., K. Jensen, J. Qualls, B. English, and C. Clark. 2011. 2009 Southeastern United States Switchgrass Production Survey. Bio-Based Energy Analysis Group (BEAG) report. BEAG, Institute of Agriculture, University of Tennessee.
  44. Mooney, D., and B.C. English. 2009. Economics of the Switchgrass Supply Chain: Enterprise Budgets and Production Cost Analyses. Paper presented at the Farm Foundation Conference, Transition to a Bioeconomy: The Role of Extension in Energy. Little Rock AR. June 30–July 1, 2009.
  45. Mooney, D.F., R.K. Roberts, B.C English, D.D. Tyler, and J.A. Larson. 2009. Yield and Breakeven Price of ‘Alamo’ Switchgrass for Biofuels in Tennessee. Agronomy Journal 101: 1234–1242. 
  46. National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. 2011. Agricultural Prices.
  47. National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. 2009a. Agricultural Prices.
  48. National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. 2009b. Agricultural Prices 2008 Summary.
  49. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  50. Ogle, S.M., S.J. Del Grosso, P.R. Adler, and W.J. Parton. 2008. Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions with Crop Production for Biofuel: Implications for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation. In Life Cycle Carbon Footprint of Biofuels, Outlaw, J.L., and D.P. Ernstes (eds.). Paper presented at the Farm Foundation Conference. Miami Beach, FL. January 28, 2008.
  51. Parrish, D.J., and J.H. Fike. 2005. The Biology and Agronomy of Switchgrass for Biofuels. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 24: 423–459.
  52. Parrish, D.J., D.D. Wolf, J.H. Fike, and W.L. Daniels. 2003. Switchgrass as a Biofuels Crop for the Upper Southeast: Variety Trials and Cultural Improvements, Final Report for 1997–2001. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Sciences Division: Oak Ridge, TN.
  53. Perlack, R.D., L.L Wright, A.F. Turhollow, R.L. Graham, B.J. Stokes, and D.C. Erbach, 2005. Biomass as a Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply. Publication No. DPE/GO-102995-2135/ORNL/TM-2005/66. USDA and U.S. Department of Energy. 
  54. Perrin, R., K. Vogel, M., Schmer, and R. Mitchell. 2008. Farm-Scale Production Cost of Switchgrass for Biomass. BioEnergy Research 1: 91–97.
  55. Petrolia, D. 2008. The Economics of Harvesting and Transporting Corn Stover for Conversion to Fuel Ethanol: A Case Study for Minnesota. Biomass and Bioenergy 32: 603–612.
  56. Popp, M.P. 2007. Assessment of Alternative Fuel Production from Switchgrass: An Example from Arkansas. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 39(2): 373–380.
  57. Port, O. 2005. Not Your Father’s Ethanol. Business Week. February 21, 2005.
  58. Ranney, J., L.L. Wright, and P.A. Layton, 1987. Hardwood energy crops: the technology of intensive culture. Journal of Forestry 85(9): 17–28.
  59. Renewable Fuels Association. 2011. Statistics.
  60. Sanderson, M.A., R.P. Egg, and A.E. Wiselogel. 1997. Biomass Losses During Harvest and Storage of Switchgrass. Biomass and Bioenergy 12(2): 107–114.
  61. Schmer, M.R., K.P. Vogel, R.B. Mitchell, L.E. Moser, K.M. Eskridge, and R.K. Perrin. 2005. Establishment Stand Thresholds for Switchgrass Grown as a Bioenergy Crop. Crop Science 46: 157–161.
  62. Shinners, K., G. Boettcher, D. Hoffman, J. Munk, R. Muck, and P. Weimer, 2009a. Single-Pass Harvest of Corn Grain and Stover: Performance of Three Harvester Configurations. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 52(1): 51–60.
  63. Shinners, K. J., R.G. Bennett, and D.S. Hoffman, 2009b. Single and Two-Pass Corn Stover Harvesting Systems. Paper presented at the ASABE Annual International Meeting. Reno, NV. June 21–24, 2009.
  64. Sokhansanj, S., A. Kumar, and A.F. Turhollow. 2006. Development and Implementation of Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics Model (IBSAL). Biomass and Bioenergy 30(10): 838–847.
  65. Thorsell, S., F.M. Epplin, R.L. Huhnke, and C.M. Taliaferro. 2004. Economics of a Coordinated Biorefinery Feedstock Harvest System: Lignocellulosic Biomass Harvest Cost. Biomass Bioenergy 27: 327–337.
  66. Tyler, D. 2010. Personal communication. The University of Tennessee.
  67. U.S. Congress, House of Representatives. 2007. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Title II-Energy Security Through Increased Production of Biofuels; Subtitle A – Renewable Fuel Standard. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
  68. U.S. Congress, House of Representatives. 2008. H.R. 2419, the Food Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. 110th Congress, 1st Session: Washington, D.C.
  69. USDA. 2010. Biomass Crop Assistance Program, Final Rule. Federal Register, 7 CFR Part 1450, October 27, 2010.
  70. U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2017. U.S. Fuel ethanol plant production capacity.
  71. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Transportation and Air Quality, 2007. Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Expanded Renewable and Alternative Fuels Use. EPA420–F–07–035. Office of Transportation and Air Quality, EPA.
  72. Varvel, G., K. Vogel, R. Mitchell, R. Follet, and J. Kimble. 2008. Comparison of Corn and Switchgrass on Marginal Soils for Bioenergy. Biomass and Bioenergy 32(1): 18–21.
  73. Vogel, K.P., and R.A. Masters. 2001. Frequency Grid—A Simple Tool for Measuring Grassland Establishment. Journal of Range Management 54: 653–655.
  74. Walsh, M. 2007. Switchgrass. SunGrant BioWeb, The University of Tennessee: Knoxville, TN.
  75. Wang, C. 2009. Economic Analysis of Delivering Switchgrass to a Biorefinery from both the Farmers’ and Processor’s Perspectives. M.S. Thesis. The University of Tennessee Department of Agricultural Economics. 
  76. Wang, C., J.A. Larson, B.C. English, and K. Jensen. 2009. Cost analysis of alternative harvest, storage and transportation methods for delivering switchgrass to a biorefinery from the farmers’ perspective. Paper presented at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association Meeting. Atlanta, GA. January 31–February 3, 2009.
  77. Wang, M.Q. 2008. Well-to-Wheels Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Results and Issues of Fuel Ethanol. In Life Cycle Carbon Footprint of Biofuels, Outlaw, J.L., and D.P. Ernstes (eds.). Paper presented at Farm Foundation Conference. Miami Beach, FL. January 28, 2008.
  78. Wilhelm, W., J. Doran, and J. Power. 1986. Corn and Soybean Yield Response to Crop Residue Management Under No-Tillage Production Systems. Agronomy Journal 78: 184–189.
  79. Wiselogel, A.E., F.A. Agblevor, D.K. Johnson, S. Deutch, J.A. Fennell, and M.A. Sanderson. 1996. Compositional Changes During Storage of Large Round Switchgrass Bales. Bioresource Technology 56(1): 103–110.
  80. Wright L., and A. Turhollow. 2010. Switchgrass Selection as a “Model” Bioenergy Crop: A History of the Process, Biomass and Bioenergy 34(6): 851–868.

Chapter 17: Tennessee Valley and Sandstone Plateau Region Case Studies

  1. Balkcom, K.S., D.W. Reeves, J.N. Shaw, C.H. Burmester, and L.M. Curtis. 2006. Cotton yield and fiber quality from irrigated tillage systems in the Tennessee Valley. Agronomy Journal 98: 596–602. 
  2. Brown, S.M., T. Whitwell, J.T. Touchton, and C.H. Burmester. 1985. Conservation tillage system for cotton production. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49:1256–1260.
  3. Burmester, C.H., M.G. Patterson, and D.W. Reeves. 1993. No-till cotton growth characteristics and yield in Alabama. In Proceedings of the Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture, Bollich, P.K. (ed.). pp. 30–36. Monroe, LA. June 15–17, 1993.
  4. Burmester, C.H., D.W. Reeves, and A.C.V. Motta. 2002. Effect of crop rotation/tillage systems on cotton yield in the Tennessee Valley area of Alabama, 1980–2001. In Making Conservation Tillage Conventional: Building a Future on 25 Years of Research, Proceedings of the 25th Annual Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture, van Santen, E., (ed.). pp. 354–357. Auburn AL. June 24–26, 2002.
  5. Clark, S.H.B. 2008. Birth of the mountains: the geologic story of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. U.S. Geological Survey.
  6. Mitchell, C.C., C.B. Pinkston, and A. Caylor. 2003. Garden tillage research and demonstrations. Agronomy Series: Timely Information, Agriculture and Natural Resources, No. S–03–03. Department of Agronomy and Soils, Auburn University and Alabama Cooperative Extension System.
  7. Raper, R.L., D.W. Reeves, C.H. Burmester, and E.B. Schwab. 2000a. Tillage depth, tillage timing, and cover crop effects on cotton yield, soil strength, and tillage energy requirements. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 16: 379–385. 
  8. Raper, R.L., D.W. Reeves, E.B. Schwab, and C.H. Burmester. 2000b. Reducing soil compaction of Tennessee Valley soils in conservation tillage systems. Journal of Cotton Science 4: 84–90.
  9. Reeves, D.W., J.T. Touchton and C.H. Burmester. 1986. Starter fertilizer combinations and placement for conventional and no-tillage corn. Journal of Fertilizer Issues 3: 80–85.
  10. Schwab, E.B., D.W. Reeves, C.H. Burmester, and R.L. Raper. 2002. Conservation tillage systems for cotton in the Tennessee Valley. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66:569–577.
  11. Touchton, J.T., D.H. Rickerl, C.H. Burmester, and D.W. Reeves. 1986. Starter fertilizer combinations and placement for conventional and no-tillage cotton. Journal of Fertilizer Issues 3: 91–98.
  12. USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). 2012. Volume 1, Chapter 2: County Data: Alabama. In 2012 Census. USDA-NASS: Washington, D.C.
  13. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2006. Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the United States, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Basin. USDA Handbook 296.

Chapter 18: Southern Coastal Plain and Atlantic Coast Flatwoods Case Studies

  1. Bauer, P.J., J.R. Frederick, J.M. Novak, and P.G. Hunt. 2006. Soil CO2 flux from a Norfolk Loamy Sand after 25 years of conventional and conservation tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 90: 205–211.
  2. Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center. 2009. Unpublished data. Florence, SC.
  3. Harden, J.C., J.W. Harden, and L.C. Harden. 1978. No-till plus…Plus in-row subsoiling. In Proceedings of the 1st Annual Southeastern No-Till Systems Conference, Touchton, J.T., and D.G. Cummins (eds.). pp. 37–38. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station special publication No. 5. University of Georgia.
  4. Heap, I. 2018. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Corvallis, OR.
  5. Huber, A. 2017. Making management adjustments. The Peanut Grower: May 2017.
  6. Karlen, D.L., and D.T. Gooden. 1987. Tillage systems for wheat production in the southeastern Coastal Plains. Agronomy Journal 79(3): 582–587.
  7. Marshall, M.W., and C.L. Main. 2008. Herbicide Resistance Management. In The 2008 Pest Management Handbook, Bellinger, R.G. (ed.). p. 124. Clemson University.
  8. Morse, R.D., D.H. Vaughan, and L.W. Belcher. 1993. Evolution of conservation tillage systems for transplanted crops – potential role of the subsurface tiller transplanter (SST-T). In Proceedings of the 1993 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture, Bollich, P.K. (ed). Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station manuscript No. 93–86–7122. Monroe, LA. June 15–17, 1993.
  9. Naderman, G., B.G. Brock, G.B. Reddy, and C.W. Raczkowski. 2006. Long term no-tillage: effects on soil carbon and soil density within the prime crop root zone. Center for Environmental Farming Systems.
  10. Novak, J.M., P.J. Bauer, and P.G. Hunt. 2007. Carbon dynamics under long-term conservation and disk tillage management in a Norfolk Loamy Sand. Soil Science Society of America Journal 71: 453–456.
  11. Quisenberry, V. 2009. Personal communication.
  12. Sheridan, J.M., W.G. Knisel, T.K. Woody, and L.E. Asmussen. 1979. Seasonal variation in rainfall and rainfall-deficit periods in the Southern Coastal Plain and Flatwoods Regions of Georgia. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station special bulletin No. 243. University of Georgia: Athens, GA.
  13. Soil Science Division Staff. 2017. Chapter 3: Examination and description of soil profiles. In Soil survey manual, Ditzler, C., K. Scheffe, and H.C. Monger (eds.). USDA Handbook 18.
  14. Sojka, R.E., D.L. Karlen, and W.J. Busscher. 1991. A conservation tillage research update from the Coastal Plain Soil and Water Conservation Research Center of South Carolina: A review of previous research. Soil and Tillage Research 21: 361–376.
  15. Thomas, D.L., C.D. Perry, R.O. Evans, F.T. Izuno, K.C. Stone, and J.W. Gilliam. 1995. Agricultural drainage effects on water quality in Southeastern U.S. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 121: 277–282.
  16. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2006. Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the United States, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Basin. USDA Handbook 296.
  17. Wagger, M.G., and H.P. Denton. 1992. Crop and tillage rotations: Grain yield, residue cover, and soil water. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56: 1233–1237. 
  18. Wright, D. 2009. Personal communication.

Chapter 19: Alabama and Mississippi Blackland Prairie Case Studies

  1. Al-Darby, A.M., and B. Lowery. 1986. Evaluation of corn growth and productivity with three conservation tillage systems. Agronomy Journal 78: 901–907.
  2. Bowman, G. (ed.). 2002. Steel in the Field: A Farmer’s Guide to Weed Management Tools. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education: College Park, MD.
  3. Buehring, N.W., M.P. Harrison, and R.R. Dobbs. 2004. Corn and soybean response to rotation and tillage on a prairie clay soil, a four year summary. In 2004 annual report of the North Mississippi Research and Extension. Center. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station information bulletin No. 419: 100–102.
  4. Buehring, N.W., R.L. Ivy, M.A. Blaine, and S.R. Spurlock. 1998. Conservation tillage for corn and drill beans in the Blackbelt Prairie. In 1998 annual report of the North Mississippi Research and Extension. Center. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station information bulletin No. 347: 218–231.
  5. Buehring, N.W., S.R. Spurlock, N.C. Edwards, D.B. Reginelli, and M.A. Blaine. 1988. Net returns for soybean reduced tillage system on three land resources management areas. In Proceedings of the 1988 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference. Special bulletin 88–1: 72–75.
  6. Buehring, N.W. 2008. Unpublished data.
  7. Dick, W.A., E.L. McCoy, W.M. Edwards, and R. Lal. 1991. Continuous application of no-tillage to Ohio soils. Agronomy Journal 83: 65–73.
  8. Dick, W.A., and D.M. van Doren, Jr. 1985. Continuous tillage and rotation combination effects on corn, soybean and oat yields. Agronomy Journal 77: 459–465.
  9. Griffith, D.R., J.V. Mannering, H.M. Galloway, S.D. Parsons, and C.B. Rickey. 1973. Effect of eight tillage-planting systems on soil temperature, percent stand, plant growth and yield of corn on five Indiana soils. Agronomy Journal 65: 321–326.
  10. Griffith, D.R., J.V. Mannering, and J.D. Box. 1986. Soil moisture management with reduced tillage. In No-tillage and surface tillage agriculture, Sprague, M.A., and G.B. Triplett (eds.). pp. 19–57. John Wesley and Sons: New York, NY.
  11. Hairston, J.E., W.F. Jones, P.K. McConnaughey, L.K. Marshall, and K.B. Gill. 1990. Tillage and fertilizer management effects on soybean growth and yield on three Mississippi soils. Journal of Production Agriculture 3:317–323.
  12. Hairston, J.E., J.G. Miller, D.L. Layton, L.K. Marshall, and J.O. Sanford. 1987. Effect of soil depth, organic matter and rainfall on soybean yield in the Mississippi Black Belt. p. 8. Abstract of Technical Papers. American Society of Agronomy: Nashville, TN.
  13. Hairston, J.E., J.O. Sanford, J.C. Hayes, and L.L. Reinschmiedt. 1984. Crop yield, soil erosion, and net returns from five tillage systems in the Mississippi Blackland Prairie. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 39: 391–395.
  14. Hooks, R.R., A.L. Buchanan, and G. Chen. 2014. The stale seedbed technique: a relatively underused alternative weed management tactic for vegetable production. University of Maryland Extension.
  15. Ivy, R.L., J.L. Howell, E.B. Triplet, S.R. Spurlock, and J.R. Johnson. 2002. Soybean yield response to crop rotation and conservation tillage for the Blackland Prairie. In 2002 annual report of the North Mississippi Research and Extension. Center. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station information bulletin No. 386: 109–111.
  16. Ivy, R.L., N.W. Buehring, G.A. Jones, and J.E. Stafford. 1995. Summary of conservation tillage effect on grain yield in the Blackland Prairie. In Proceedings of the 1995 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture. pp 81–86.
  17. Johnson, M.D., and B. Lowery. 1985. Effect of three conservation practices on soil temperature and thermal properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49: 1547–1552.
  18. Jones, G.A., N. Buehring, and J. Stafford. 1996. Cotton response to tillage rotation and row spacing. In Proceedings of the 1996 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture. pp. 87–90.
  19. Mack J.J., and D.C. Erbech. 1977. Influence of conservation tillage environments on growth and productivity of corn. Agronomy Journal 61: 337–340.
  20. Meese, B.G., P.R. Carter, E.S. Oplinger, and J.W. Pendleton. 1991. Corn/soybean rotation effect as influenced by tillage, nitrogen, and hybrid/cultivar. Journal of Production Agriculture 4: 74–80.
  21. Mitchell, C., G. Huluka, and R.P. Yates. 2008. Fertilization of cotton on a Black Belt soil in Alabama. In Proceedings of the 2008 Beltwide Cotton Conference. pp. 1616–1621. Nashville, TN.
  22. Nice, G.R.W., N.W. Buehring, R.R. Dobbs, R.L. Ivy, R.W. Wimbish, D. Summers, and S.R. Spurlock. 2000. Soybean and corn response to tillage and rotation in the Mississippi Blackbelt Prairie. In Proceedings of the 2000 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture. p. 54.
  23. Sassenrath, G.F., D.K. Fisher, and J.R. Willford. 2008. Impact of conservation production practices on soil moisture in alluvial soils. In Proceedings of the 30th Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture and The 8th Annual Georgia Conservation Production Systems Training Conference. Tifton, GA. July, 29–31, 2008.
  24. Tiarks, A. 1977. Dissertation Abstract No. DCJ77–17145. University of Michigan Microfilms: Ann Arbor, MI.
  25. USDA. 1989. The second RCS appraisal. Soil, water, and related resources on non-federal land in the U.S. Analysis of conditions and trends. USDA: Washington, D.C.
  26. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2010. Bedding, Code 310.
  27. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2006. Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the United States, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Basin. USDA Handbook 296.
  28. West, T.D., D.R. Griffith, G.C. Steinhardt, E.J. Kladivko, and S.D. Parson. 1996. Effect of tillage and rotation on agronomic performance of corn and soybean: Twenty-year study on dark silty clay loam soil. Journal of Production Agriculture 9: 241–248.
  29. Yakle, G.A., and R.M. Cruse. 1984. Effects of fresh and decomposing corn plant residue extracts on corn seedling development. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48: 1143–1146

Chapter 20: Southern Piedmont Case Studies

  1. Brock, B. 2004. Long-term no-till, cover crops, and rotation minimize need for added nitrogen on corn crop. North Carolina Natural Resources Conservation Service Soil Quality Team Newsletter volume 7(3A).
  2. Bruce, R.R., G.W. Langdale, L.T. West, and W. P. Miller. 1995. Surface soil degradation and soil productivity restoration and maintenance. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59: 654–660.
  3. Bruce, R.R., G.W. Langdale, and A.L. Dillard. 1990. Tillage and crop rotation effect on characteristics of a sandy surface soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 54: 1744–1747.
  4. Bruce, R.R., G.W. Langdale, L.T. West, and W.P. Miller. 1992. Soil surface modification by biomass inputs affecting rainfall infiltration. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56: 1614–1620.
  5. Clark, R.L., D.E. Radcliffe, G.W. Langdale, and R.R. Bruce. 1993. Soil Strength and water infiltration as affected by paratillage frequency. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 36: 1301–1306.
  6. Franzluebbers, A.J., G.W. Langdale, and H.H. Schomberg. 1999. Soil carbon, nitrogen, and aggregation in response to type and frequency of tillage. Soil Science Society America Journal 63: 349–355.
  7. Langdale, G.W., A.P. Barnett, R.A. Leonard, and W.G. Fleming. 1979. Reduction of soil erosion by the no-till system in the Southern Piedmont. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 22: 82–86.
  8. Langdale, G.W., W.L. Hargrove, and J.E. Giddens. 1984. Residue management in double-crop conservation tillage. Agronomy Journal 76: 689–684.
  9. Langdale, G.W., L.T. West, R.R. Bruce, W.P. Miller, and A.W. Thomas. 1992. Restoration of eroded soil with conservation tillage. Soil Technology 5: 81–90. 
  10. Langdale, G.W., R.L. Wilson, and R.R. Bruce. 1990. Cropping frequencies to sustain long-term conservation tillage systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 54: 193–198.
  11. Naderman, G.C., B.G. Brock, G.B. Reddy, and C.W. Raczkowski. 2006. Long-term no-tillage: effects on soil carbon and soil density within the prime crop root zone. Project Report to the Corn Growers Association of North Carolina, Cotton Incorporated, and the North Carolina Soybean Producers Association.
  12. National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. 2009. United States summary and state data. Vol 1, Geographic Area Series, Part 51. In 2007 Census of Agriculture. USDA.
  13. Raper, R.L., D.W. Reeves, C.H. Burmester, and E.B. Schwab. 2000a. Tillage depth, tillage timing, and cover crop effects on cotton yield, soil strength, and tillage energy requirements. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 16:379–385.
  14. Raper, R.L., D.W. Reeves, E.B. Schwab, and C.H. Burmester. 2000b. Reducing Soil Compaction of Tennessee Valley Soils in Conservation Tillage Systems. Journal of Cotton Science 4: 84–90.
  15. Raper, R.L., D.W. Reeves, J.N. Shaw, E. van Santen, and P.L. Mask. 2005. Using site-specific subsoiling to minimize draft and optimize corn yields. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 48(6): 2047–2052.
  16. Raper, R.L., D.W. Reeves, J.N. Shaw, E. van Santen, and P.L. Mask. 2007. Site-specific subsoiling benefits for cotton production in Coastal Plains soils. Soil and Tillage Research 96: 174–181. 
  17. Reeves, D.W. 1997. The role of soil organic matter in maintaining soil quality in continuous cropping systems. Soil and Tillage Research 43: 131–167.
  18. Schomberg, H.H., G.W. Langdale, A.J. Franzluebbers, and M.C. Lamb. 2003. Comparison of tillage types and frequencies for cotton on Southern Piedmont soil. Agronomy Journal 95: 1281–1287. 
  19. Trimble, S.W. 1974. Man-induced soil erosion on the Southern Piedmont: 1700–1970. Soil Conservation Society of America: Ankeny, IA.
  20. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2006. Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the United States, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Basin. USDA Handbook 296.
  21. West, L.T., W.P. Miller, R.R. Bruce, G.W. Langdale, J.M. Laflen, and A.W. Thomas. 1992. Cropping system and consolidation effects on rill erosion in the Georgia Piedmont. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56: 1238–1243. 
  22. West, L.T., W.P. Miller, G.W. Langdale, R.R. Bruce, J.M. Laflen, and A.W. Thomas 1991. Cropping system effects on interrill soil loss in the Georgia Piedmont. Soil Science Society of America Journal 55: 460–466. 

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